Cabbage (Brassica oleracea):
Cabbage’s best known medicinal use is as a
poultice—the leaves of the wild or cultivated plant
are blanched, crushed, or chopped, and applied to
swellings, tumors and painful joints. Wild cabbage
leaves eaten raw or cooked aid digestion and the
breakdown of toxins in the liver, so the Romans’
eating it to ease a hangover was quite sensible. The
leaves can be used as a poultice to cleanse infected
wounds - the mid-rib is removed and the leaf ironed
then placed on the affected area whilst still hot. The
seeds are anthelmintic, diuretic, laxative and
stomachic. Cabbage is also detoxifying and helpful in
the long term treatment of arthritis. The high
vitamin C content of cabbage has made it useful in the
prevention of scurvy.
Cabbage Tree (Andira
inermis): Cabbage tree produces a smooth
grey bark which has been used in herbal medicine
systems as a strong purgative to expel intestinal
worms. It is treated with much respect by the
rainforest shamans and herbal healers as a very
powerful medicine since too large of a dose causes
vomiting, fever, delirium, and even death. Some
Indian tribes in the Amazon prepare a bark decoction
to use for ring worm and other fungal infections on
the skin. Usually taken as an infusion
Calabar Bean (Physostigma venenosum):
Chiefly used for diseases of the eye (especially for
glaucoma as it reduces pressure on the eyeball); it causes
rapid contraction of the pupil and disturbed vision. Also
used as a stimulant to the unstriped muscles of the
intestines in chronic constipation. Its action on the
circulation is to slow the pulse and raise blood-pressure;
As a physostigmine, it is used internally for
neuromuscular diseases (notably myasthenia gravis), and
postoperative constipation. It depresses the central
nervous system, causing muscular weakness; it has been
employed internally for its depressant action in epilepsy,
cholera, etc., and given hypodermically in acute tetanus.
Formerly used in the treatment of tetanus, epilepsy, and
Calabash Tree (Crescentia cujete):
include the seed as an abortive and the roasted fruit pulp
was eaten to force menses, birth, and afterbirth.
Consequently, it is best not to consume this plant while
pregnant. The pulp was also used as a purgative and in
Barbados for abortions when boiled with leaves of
Swietenia spp. and Petiveria alliacea. The
mixture, however, causes nausea, diarrhea and poisoning.
Dried bark shows in vitro antibacterial activity against
Bacillus subtilis, Psuedomonas aeruginosa,
Staphylococcos aureus and Escherichia coli. In
Suriname's traditional medicine, the fruit pulp is used
for respiratory problems (asthma).
aromatic. The whole herb has a sweet, aromatic odor and an infusion of
the dried leaves, collected about July, when in their best condition
and dried in the same way as Catmint tops, makes a pleasant cordial
tea, which was formerly often taken for weaknesses of the stomach and
flatulent colic. It is used in hysterical complaints, and a conserve
made of the young fresh tops has been used, for this purpose.
Culpepper says that it 'is very efficacious in all afflictions
of the brain,' that it 'relieves convulsions and cramps, shortness of
breath or choleric pains in the stomach or bowels,' and that 'it cures
the yellow jaundice.' He also recommends it, taken with salt and
honey, for killing worms
Calamint, Trailing (Calamintha
cretica) A minty scented tea is used in
Calamus (Acorus americanus) Calamus
rhizome is a bitter tonic that stimulates the digestive juices and is
combined with gentian in the tonic Stockton bitters.
It counters overacidity, heartburn, and intestinal gas.
Herbalists report it useful to help reduce severe loss of
appetite due to cancer or other illness or the eating disorder
anorexia nervosa. Traditional
Islamic medicine employs calamus for stomach and liver inflammation
and rheumatism, as well as a calamus-rose oil-vinegar mix to treat
burns. Egyptians used sweet flag for scrofula, but it should be
combined with supporting, more effective herbs for this chronic
studies show that calamus extracts kill bacteria, lower blood pressure
by dilating the blood vessels, stop coughing, and eliminate lung
Chinese medicine uses it to open the orifices, vaporize phlegm and
quiet the spirit; for phlegm veiling and clocking the sensory orifices
with such symptoms as deafness, dizziness, forgetfulness, and dulled
sensorium, as well as seizures or stupor.
It harmonizes the middle burner and transforms turbid dampness:
for such symptoms as chest and epigastric fullness and abdominal pain
due to dampness distressing the Spleen and Stomach.
Also used both internally and topically for wind-cold-damp
painful obstruction, trauma and sores.
Use with caution in cases of yin deficiency with heat signs or
where there is irritability and excessive sweating or vomiting blood.
According to some traditional sources, this herb antagonizes ma huang.
The Regional Research Institute in India
found that calamus reduces epileptic fits and even eases some
emotional problems. It is
also used in India to treat asthma. The Native Americans for the Great
Plains chewed it when they had a fever, cough, cold, or toothache.
The American species is especially sedative to the central
nervous system and stops muscle spasms.
In India the burnt root mixed with some bland oil is used as a
poultice for flatulence and colic as well as for paralyzed limbs and
indolent ulcers and wounds. Its solvents are alcohol and partially in hot water.
Calea (Calea zacatechichi):
Calea zacatechichi is a plant used
by the Chontal Indians of Mexico to obtain divinatory
messages during dreaming. At human doses, organic extracts
of the plant produce the EEG and behavioral signs of
somnolence and induce light sleep in cats. Large doses
elicit salivation, ataxia, retching and occasional
vomiting. The effects of the plant upon cingulum discharge
frequency were significantly different from
hallucinogenic- dissociative drugs (ketamine. quipazine,
phencyclidine and SKF-10017). In human healthy volunteers,
low doses of the extracts administered in a double-blind
design against placebo increased reaction time end
time-lapse estimation. A controlled nap sleep study in the
same volunteers showed that Calea extracts increased the
superficial stages of sleep and the number of spontaneous
awakenings. The subjective reports of dreams were
significantly higher than both placebo and diazepam,
indicating an increase in hypnagogic imagery occurring
during superficial sleep stages. Sources:
Calendula (Calendula officinalis): : Throughout the ages, tinctures
made from calendula blossoms have been used to treat headaches,
toothaches and even tuberculosis.
The ancient Romans used calendula to treat scorpion bites and
soldiers in the American Civil War found it helped stop wounds from
bleeding. There is nothing better for sore or inflamed eyes than to
bathe them in marigold water.
Calendula is a popular salve and cream ingredient because it
decreases the inflammation of sprains, stings, varicose veins and
other swellings and soothes burns, sunburn, rashes and skin
studies show it kills bacteria and fungus such as ringworm, athlete's
foot. It is gentle enough
to be applied as a tea to thrush in children's mouths.
internally, it has been used traditionally to promote the draining of
swollen lymph glands, such as in tonsillitis and as part of the
therapy for uterine or breast cancer, both as a poultice and as a tea. Herbalists report success in using a swab of calendula
preparation or calendula boluses to treat abnormal cervical cells.
Some antitumor activities have been observed in scientific
studies. The infusion or
tincture helps inflammatory problems of the digestive system such as
gastritis, peptic ulcers, regional ileitis and colitis.
Calendula has long been considered a detoxifying herb, and
helps to treat the toxicity that underlies many fevers and infections
and systemic skin disorders such as eczema and acne.
The herb is also considered cleansing for the liver (promotes
bile production) and gallbladder and can be used to treat problems
affecting these organs. Makes
a healing mouthwash for gums after tooth extraction.
has a mild estrogenic action and is often used to help reduce
menstrual pain and regulate menstrual bleeding.
The infusion makes an effective douche for yeast infections.
California False Hellebore (Veratrum californicum):
Although a very poisonous plant, California false
hellebore was often employed medicinally by a number of
native North American Indian tribes who used it mainly as
an external application to treat wounds etc. It is
little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. Any use of
this plant, especially internal use, should be carried out
with great care and preferably only under the supervision
of a qualified practitioner. A decoction of the root has
been used in the treatment of venereal disease. The roots
have been grated then chewed and the juice swallowed as a
treatment for colds. A poultice of the mashed raw root has
been used as a treatment for rheumatism, boils, sores,
cuts, swellings and burns. The dried and ground up root
has been used as a dressing on bruises and sores. A
poultice of the chewed root has been applied to
rattlesnake bites to draw out the poison. The powdered
root has been rubbed on the face to allay the pain of
toothache. A decoction of the root has been taken orally
by both men and women as a contraceptive. A dose of one
teaspoon of this decoction three times a day for three
weeks is said to ensure permanent sterility in women.
The plant is still used a
pain reliever for headaches and rheumatism. A tea from the leaves is one method of administration.
For rheumatism, early settlers used a hot bath in
which they had steeped laurel leaves.
Others blended the oil from the leaves with lard
and rubbed the mixture on the body.
The crushed leaves are an excellent herbal
“smelling salt,” held briefly under the nose of a
person who is faint or has fainted.
Prolonged breathing of the crushed leaves can
cause a short-term frontal headache which can be cured,
oddly enough, by a tea of the leaves. The crushed leaves make an excellent tea for all headaches
and neuralgia, possessing substantial anodyne effects
and they further have value as a treatment for the
tenesmus or cramps from diarrhea, food poisoning, and
gastroenteritis in general—two to four leaves crushed
and steeped for tea, repeated as needed.
California laurel was employed medicinally by
some native North American Indian tribes who used it
particularly as an analgesic to treat a variety of
complaints. It has a beneficial effect upon the
digestive system. An infusion has been used by women to
ease the pains of afterbirth. Externally, an infusion
has been used as a bath in the treatment of rheumatism.
A decoction of the leaves has been used as a wash on
sores and to remove vermin from the head. They are
harvested as required and can be used fresh or dried.
A poultice of the ground seeds has been used to
treat sores. The
seeds have been eaten as a stimulant.
West Coast Indians used the California poppy chiefly
as a pain reliever for toothache.
The plant was also prescribed as a sedative for
headache and insomnia, and it is still mentioned today
as a gentle sedative and analgesic.
California poppy is not a narcotic like its
relative the opium poppy.
It tends to normalize psychological function. It’s gently antispasmodic, sedative, and analgesic effects
make it a valuable herbal medicine fore treating
physical and psychological problems in children.
It may also prove beneficial in attempts to
overcome bedwetting, difficulty in sleeping, and
nervous tension and anxiety.
May be useful in the treatment of gall-bladder
tinctoria): Native Americans
chewed the leaves for toothache, and applied a poultice of
them to skin sores and bruises. The powdered root in warm
water was used as a wash for sore eyes. A tea made of the
root was used for stomachache, diarrhea, and fever. This
plant is an effective astringent and hemostatic, with its
effects lasting the length of the intestinal tract and
therefore of use in dysentery and general intestinal
inflammations. It may be used as a systemic hemostatic;
when drunk after a sprain or major bruise or hematoma will
help stabilize the injury and facilitate quicker healing.
The tea will also lessen menstrual flow. A few leaves in
a little water or a weak tea is a soothing eyewash.
Calotrope (Calotropis procera):
Has been used in
India as a remedy for dysentery, diarrhea and other
conditions, and topically for eczema. It has also long
been used in India for abortive and suicidal purposes.
Mudar root-bark is very largely used there as a
treatment for elephantiasis and leprosy, and is
efficacious in cases of chronic eczema.
Americans chewed the leaves for toothache, and applied
a poultice of them to skin sores and bruises.
The powdered root in warm water was used as a
wash for sore eyes. A tea made of the root was used for stomachache, diarrhea,
and fever. This plant is an effective astringent and
hemostatic, with its effects lasting the length of the
intestinal tract and therefore of use in dysentery and
general intestinal inflammations.
It may be used as a systemic hemostatic; when
drunk after a sprain or major bruise or hematoma will
help stabilize the injury and facilitate quicker
tea will also lessen menstrual flow.
A few leaves in a little water or a weak tea is
a soothing eyewash.
palmata): Calumba is
an excellent digestive remedy that tones the whole tract,
stimulating it gently but having no astringent
properties. It may be used whenever debility occurs that
is connected with some digestive involvement. Internally
used for morning sickness, atonic dyspepsia with low
stomach acid, diarrhea, and dysentery.
Camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora):
This native of China is the source of camphor, which
is somewhat antiseptic, acts as a circulatory stimulant,
and has a calming effect in cases of hysteria, general
nervousness, and neuralgia. The distilled oil has been
used to treat diarrhea, rheumatism, and muscular pains.
It is commonly applied externally as a counterirritant and
analgesic liniment. It may also be applied to skin
problems, such as cold sores and chilblains and used as a
chest rub for bronchitis and other chest infections. It
is used for bronchitis and asthma to control
hypersecretion, for exhaustion, depression, stomachache
and abdominal pain, to stimulate blood and energy
circulation, remove excess moisture, and kill
insects/worms. It is effective externally against
parasites, ringworm, scabies and to stop itch. Camphor is
frequently found in oils for external use, as it opens the
lungs, relieves congestion and helps to relieve muscle
tension and joint pain. It also is used for arthritic and
rheumatic pains and pains of trauma and injury (although
it should not be applied directly to open wounds). It is
used as a smelling salt and given internally in small
amounts to revive a patient from delirium or coma. A
piece of camphor attached to children’s underclothing will
help to protect them from contagious diseases. As an
incense it purifies the air. Small doses act to
stimulate respiration; large doses can be toxic by
stopping respiration. Doctors have disagreed as to
whether camphor will stop heart fibrillation, and whether
it is a heart stimulant, as is widely believed in Europe.
Camphor is used in Ayurveda locally, to numb the
peripheral sensory nerves and as a counterirritant in
rheumatisms and sprains and inflammatory conditions. In
Latin America, a solution of camphor in wine used as a
liniment if a folk remedy for tumors. In Mexico, a mix of
camphor and olive oil is popular for treating bruises and
Canada Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis):
Canadian hemlock was commonly employed medicinally by
several native North American Indian tribes who used it to
treat a variety of complaints. It is still sometimes used
in modern herbalism where it is valued for its astringent
and antiseptic properties. A decoction of the bark is
used in the treatment of diarrhea, colitis, diverticulitis
and cystitis. Externally, it is used as a poultice to
cleanse and tighten bleeding wounds, as a douche to treat
excessive vaginal discharge, thrush and a prolapsed
uterus, and as a mouthwash and gargle for gingivitis and
sore throats. The poultice has also been applied to the
armpits to treat itchiness there. The inner bark is
diaphoretic and styptic. An infusion is used in the
treatment of colds and abdominal pains. A decoction of the
inner bark has been applied externally in the treatment of
eczema and other skin conditions. The pulverized inner
bark has been applied to cuts and wounds to stop the
bleeding. A tea made from the leafy twig tips is used in
the treatment of dysentery, kidney ailments, colds and
rheumatism. Externally, it is used in steam baths for
treating colds, rheumatism and to induce sweating. A
decoction of the branches has been boiled down to a syrup
or thick paste and used as a poultice on arthritic joints.
A poultice of the crushed branch tips has been used to
treat infections on an infants navel. Hemlock pitch has
been used externally as a counter-irritant in the
treatment of rheumatism.
Canada Violet (Viola canadensis):
A tea made from the roots has been used in the treatment
of pain in the bladder region. The roots and leaves have
traditionally been used to induce vomiting, they have also
been poulticed and applied to skin abrasions and boils.
Canadian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinum):
Indian hemp is an unpleasantly bitter stimulant irritant
herb that acts on the heart, respiratory and urinary
systems, and also on the uterus. It was much employed by
various native North American Indian tribes who used it to
treat a wide variety of complaints including rheumatism,
coughs, pox, whooping cough, asthma, internal parasites,
diarrhea and also to increase milk flow in lactating
mothers. The fresh root is the most active part
medicinally. It has been used in the treatment of syphilis
and as a tonic. A weak tea made from the dried root has
been used for cardiac diseases. A tea made from the root
has been used as a vermifuge. The milky sap is a folk
remedy for venereal warts. It is favored for the
treatment of amenorrhea and leucorrhea. It is also of
value for its diaphoretic and emetic properties. A
half-ounce of crushed root was boiled in a pint of water
and one or two ounces of the decoction administered
several times a day as a laxative. The powered root was
used to induce vomiting. The entire plant, steeped in
water, was used to treat intestinal worms, fever,
dysentery, asthma, pneumonia, inflammation of the
intestines, and indigestion. The plant is considered a
This plant causes large and liquid stools,
accompanied by but little griping; acts with more or less
freedom upon the kidneys; and in large doses produces much
nausea, and rather copious vomiting. Emesis from its use
is followed by rather free perspiration, as is to be
expected from any emetic; though this agent also acts
considerably upon the surface. The pulse becomes softer
and fuller under its use; and it is accused of producing
drowsiness and a semi-narcotism. It has been most used
for its effects as a hydrogogue cathartic and diuretic in
dropsies; but should be employed only in moderation, and
in connection with tonics and diffusive stimulants. It
usually increases the menstrual flow, and some have lately
attributed decided antiperiodic properties to it, but this
is not yet satisfactorily confirmed. An ounce of the root
boiled a few minutes in a pint of water, is the better
mode of preparing it; and from one to two fluid ounces of
this are a laxative dose. An extract is made, of which the
dose is from three to six grains.
Canadian Sweetgale (Comptonia peregrina):
The leaves were boiled by Indians to make a
poultice that was tied to the cheek to relieve toothache.
A decoction of the plant was used to treat diarrhea,
rheumatism, colic, and weakness following fever. A tea
made from the leaves and flowering tops is used as a
remedy for diarrhea, headache, fevers, catarrh, vomiting
of blood, rheumatism etc. The infusion has also been used
to treat ringworm. The leaves have also been used as a
poultice for toothaches, sprains etc. A cold water
infusion of the leaves has been used externally to counter
the effect of poison ivy and to bathe stings, minor
hemorrhages etc. The leaves are harvested in early summer
and dried for later use.
Canaigre (Rumex hymenosepalus):
The use of cañaigre root in folk medicine has been as an
astringent, prepared as a tea for diarrhea and as a garble
for sore throat. These uses are probably effective, owing
to the plant’s high tannin content. Herbalists have
traditionally relied upon cañaigre as an astringent. They
used its large tuberous roots to make a tea for treating
diarrhea and a gargle for easing sore throat. One herbal
suggests using the boiled root extract to stop bleeding
from minor scrapes and cuts. For sunburn, the root can be
grated fresh on the burned skin, allowed to dry and a
poultice of the inner pith of the cactus placed over or
the juice rubbed in. An infusion of the stems and leaves
has been used as a wash for sores, ant bites and infected
cuts. The root has been chewed in the treatment of coughs
and colds. The dried, powdered roots have been used as a
dusting powder and dressing on burns and sores. A tea made
from this plant is used to treat colds. The dried root
combined with water is used as a mouthwash for pyorrhea
and gum inflammations. Sucking on a slice tightens the
teeth. The tea is used as a wash for acne and other moist
or greasy skin problems.
Bush (Sutherlandia frutescens) It
was introduced to the colonists in the early days by
the Khoikhoi. It is a long respected and used in
medicine. It has been used ever since as a remedy for
a variety of ailments. If one cup of leaves steeped is
added in 1 litre of boiling water, it will be good for
washing wounds and 0.25 to 0.5 cup of this brew sipped
every half hour is an old-fashioned remedy used to
bring down fevers, treat chicken pox, and to treat
internal cancers. Among the Khoi and the Nama people,
the plant is used as a bitter tonic and a general
panacea. They used extracts externally to wash
wounds and internally to relieve fever.
Recent studies have identified the presence of
high concentrations of amino acids in this plant,
including canavanine. The tea of the dried
leaves and twigs has been used for treating stomach
problems and internal cancers.
was used as an eyewash in the treatment of eye
troubles. Many of the farmers in the Cape say that
their workers still use cancer bush to treat eye and
ailments today. It can help in liver ailments,
hemorrhoids, bladder, uterus, female complaints, for
diarrhea, stomach ailments and for backache. Many
people use cancer bush as a tonic and believe that a
little taken before meals will aid digestion and
improve the appetite. The
cancer bush is a traditional remedy for the relief of
stomach problems and internal cancers. It is said to
be a useful bitter tonic and a good general medicine.
The virtues of the plant also extend to include
relieving the symptoms of colds, influenza, chicken
pox, diabetes, varicose veins, piles, inflammation,
liver problems, backache and rheumatism. Source:
Cancer Bush (Acalypha
The common name hierba del
cancer stems not from the ability of the plant to fight
cancer but rather because of the local use of the word
cancer to mean an open sore. The plant is used as a
remedy in Belize for a variety of serious skin
conditions such as fungus, ulcers, ringworm and itching
or burning labia in women. It is used throughout Latin
America as a diuretic. The leaves are used in Guatemala
not only as a diuretic but also to treat kidney-related
problems. In Haiti it is used to treat diarrhea,
inflammations and dyspepsia. In a study of plants
used in Guatemala as a diuretic and for the treatment of
urinary ailments, extracts of the plant were shown to
increase urinary output by 52%. A dried leaf tincture
has been shown to be active against Staphylococcus
aureus but inactive against some other bacteria.
Excellent remedy to wash skin conditions of
the worst kind such as chronic rashes, blisters, peeling
skin, deep sores, ulcers, fungus, ringworm,
inflammation, itching and burning of labia in women –
boil one entire plant in one quart water for 10 minutes;
strain and wash area with very hot water 3 times daily.
Leaves may be dried and toasted and passed through a
screen to make a powder to sprinkle on sores, skin
infections, or boils. For stomach complaints or urinary
infections, boil one entire plant in 3 cups water for 5
minutes; drink 3 cups of warm decoction 3 times a day (1
cup before each meal). The local use of the word
“cancer” refers to a type of open sore. A dried leaf
tincture was shown to have in vitro activity against
curassavica): The plant is used medicinally in the
tropics for the anodyne properties of its roots. It has
also been used in scrofula with great success. Used
as a remedy for cancers, warts and similar growths.
of the root is used in Suriname’s traditional medicine
as an emetic and laxative. Other uses employed are
against warts, fever, vomiting and as an expectorant.
Root extracts of cancerillo are widely used
in South America an emetic (induces vomiting) and
laxative. The leaves and flowers of the plant are
considered toxic and reports of smaller grazing animals
dying from consumption of the leaves have been reported.
In the Suriname rainforest, an extract of the root is
used an emetic, expectorant, and laxative and employed
for warts, fever, and to induce vomiting. A decoction of
the entire plant is used as an abortifacient. The roots
are commonly known as "pleurisy root" and used as an
expectorant for pneumonia and pleurisy and other lung
problems. In Jamaica, a poultice of the root is used to
treat ringworm and to stop bleeding. The Caribs
considered the root to be good medicine to reduce
fevers, and in Africa it has been used for intestinal
troubles with children.
Canada and the USA, the milky sap of the stems have been
used to treat warts and skin parasites, and the roots
are prepared in decoctions for constipation, venereal
disease, kidney stones, asthma, and cancer. In the
1880's, Native Americans used the plant as a
contraceptive and snakebite remedy. In Ayurvedic herbal
medicine systems the plant is considered diaphoretic,
anthelmintic, purgative, and emetic; it is employed in
India for stomach tumors, piles, gonorrhea, intestinal
parasites, fever, and warts.
Candlenut Oil Tree (Aleurites moluccana) --
Several parts of the plant have
been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas
where it is native. The oil is an irritant and purgative
and sometimes used like castor oil. The seed kernels
have a laxative effect. In Japan its bark has been used
on tumors. In Sumatra, , pounded seeds, burned with
charcoal, are applied around the navel for costiveness.
In Malaya, the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used
in poultices for headache, fevers, ulcers, swollen
joints, and gonorrhea. In Java, the bark is used for
bloody diarrhea or dysentery. In Sumatra,
pounded seeds, burned with charcoal, are applied around
the navel for cositiveness. Bark juice with coconut milk
is used for sprue. The fruit is eaten to produce
aphrodisiac stimulation and the gum from the bark is
chewed for the same reason.
The oil is sometimes used medicinally similar to castor
oil, as well as a laxative. In Southeast Asia, the oil
is sometimes applied topically to treat headaches,
fevers and swollen joints. To treat sores or
infections in the mouth and to soothe the gums of
teething babies, healers pick green kukui nuts in the
morning when the sap is running. They separate the stem
from the husk of the nut, and a small pool of sap fills
the resulting hole. They apply the sap topically on
sores or mix it with water to make a mouthwash. Its
partly dried sap is used to treat thrush (ea) and its
leaves are used as poultice for swellings and
Candytuft (Iberis amara):
parts of the plant, especially seeds, are used. Considered
effective against gout, rheumatism and often relieves deep
water retention or dropsy. Rarely used in herbal medicine
today until recently, it is a bitter-tasting tonic, aiding
digestion and relieving gas and bloating. Now the source
of Iberogast® used in digestive formulas.
lancea) This plant is widely used in traditional
Chinese medicine. The root is a bitter-sweet tonic herb
that acts mainly upon the digestive system. The root is
the active part. It is often used in conjunction with
other herbs such as Codonopsis tangshen and Glycyrrhiza
uralensis. It is used in the treatment of digestive
disorders, rheumatoid arthritis and night blindness.
The Chinese herb cangzhu dominates two formulas widely
prescribed in China for male infertility. One, called
hochu-ekki-to, contains 4 grams each of cangzhu,
ginseng; 3 grams of Japanese angelica; 2 grams each of
bupleurum root, jujube fruit, citrus unshiu peel (a
Japanese citrus fruit); 1.5 grams of Chinese black
cohosh; and 0.5 gram of ginger, licorice. Lowers blood
pressure in hypertensive patients. Inhibits
cyclo-oxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase, the enzymes that
manufacture inflammatory prostaglandins and leukotrienes,
Violet (Viola rostrata):
Said to be
useful in pectoral and cutaneous diseases; also in
Canker Weed (Nabalus serpentarius):
Useful as a mouthwash or gargle. The plant is said to be
an antidote for snake bites. Used in homeopathy.
(Coptis groenlandica or C. greenlandica)
The roots and rhizomes of cankerroot chewed raw or
boiled, have been used to treat canker sores, fever
blisters, and other mouth irritations and to treat
indigestion and sore throats.
A medicinal brew from the roots has been used as
an eyewash. The
effectiveness of all these uses is due to the presence
of the alkaloid berberine, a mild sedative, in the
decoction of equal parts of cankerroot and goldenseal
has acquired the reputation of eliminating the craving
for alcoholic beverages.
May be used as an infusion
in dyspepsia and digestive complaints
ilicifolia): the leaves of the plant are brewed
into a tea for the treatment of ulcers, indigestion,
chronic gastritis, and dyspepsia and is considered to be
a good antacid. The leaf tea is also applied topically
to wounds, rashes, and skin cancer.
Cape Gooseberry (Physalis
peruviana): In Colombia, the
leaf decoction is taken as a diuretic and antiasthmatic.
In South Africa, the heated leaves are applied as
poultices on inflammations and the Zulus administer the
leaf infusion as an enema to relieve abdominal ailments in
Capers (Capparis spinosa)
The unopened flower buds are laxative and, if prepared
correctly with vinegar, are thought to ease stomach
bark is bitter and diuretic, and can be taken
immediately before meals to increase the appetite.
The root bark is purifying and stops internal
is used to treat skin conditions, capillary weakness,
and easy bruising, and is also used in cosmetic
decoction of the plant is used to treat yeast and
vaginal infections such as candidiasis. Capers are an
appetizer and digestive.
Since ancient times, caper poultices have been
used to ease swellings and bruises and this led to the
belief that rutin had properties affecting the
permeability of the blood capillaries; such as
reducing their fragility though clinical evidence is
Spurge (Euphorbia lathyrus) Caper
spurge is so violent a purgative that it is rarely if
ever used in contemporary herbal medicine.
Caper spurge seeds were commonly employed, but an
oil extracted from them was also used in very small
doses (the oil is highly toxic).
In the past, the milky latex of caper spurge was
used as a depilatory and to remove corns and warts, but
is too irritant to be used safely.
Caraway (Carum carvi): Caraway
water is well known for its carminative effect, particularly for
babies. This property of
the seeds has been known and used from ancient times until today.
Caraway is also used as a flavoring for children’s medicines.
It is a good digestive and stomachic.
Other properties it is believed to have are: antispasmodic,
aphrodisiac, appetitive, emmenagogic, expectorant and galactagogic
(stimulates the secretion of bile). It was used in cases of dyspepsia, diarrhoea and even
is quoted as recommending pallid girls to take a tonic of caraway oil.
Modern researchers have discovered that two chemicals (carvol
and carvene) in caraway seeds soothe the smooth muscle tissue of the
digestive tract and help expel gas.
Antispasmodic, which appear to be present in caraway, soothe
not only the digestive tract but other smooth muscles, such as the
uterus, as well. Thus,
caraway might relax the uterus, not stimulate it.
Women may try it for relief of menstrual cramps.
For a pleasant-tasting infusion that might help aid digestion,
relieve gas or menstrual cramping, use 2-3 teaspoons of bruised or
crushed seeds per cup of boiling water. Steep 10-20 minutes.
Drink up to 3 cups a day.
If you prefer a tincture, take ½-1 teaspoon up to three times
a day. Low-strength
caraway infusions may be given to infants for colic and gas.
(Elettaria cardamomum): :
Its digestive properties have made it popular as an after-dinner
infusion, and it acts as a breath freshener when chewed.
It is used in India for many conditions, including asthma,
bronchitis, kidney stones, anorexia, debility and weakened Vata. The herb has a long-lasting reputation as an aphrodisiac.
Cardamom treats gastralgia, enuresis (involuntary urination),
warming, antimucus stimulant to add to lung tonics.
is very high in cineole, a potent expectorant compound and a central
nervous system stimulant. In
cases of emphysema, add a teaspoon or two of powdered cardamom to
fruit juice or tea.
Chinese medicine it: 1)
increases the Qi and replenishes deficiency; restores the lungs,
spleen and nerve and generates strength; lifts the spirit and rids
depression; 2) Warms and invigorates the stomach and intestines; frees
spasms and dries mucous damp; awakens the appetite, settles the
stomach and quells vomiting; 3) Stimulates the lungs, expels phlegm
and clears the head; 4) antidotes poison and resolves contusion.
Cardamom, Round (Alpinia
In Asian medicinal
practices, the cardamom fruit are used to expel gas,
prevent vomiting and stimulate stomach secretions.
Cardinal Flower (Lobelia
tea made from the roots has been used in the treatment of
epilepsy, syphilis, typhoid, stomach aches, cramps, worms
etc. A poultice of the roots has been applied to sores
that are hard to heal. The leaves are analgesic and
febrifuge. A tea made from the leaves is used in the
treatment of croup, nosebleeds, colds, fevers, headaches
etc. A poultice of the leaves has been applied to the head
to relieve the pain of headaches. This species is
considered to have similar medicinal activity to L.
inflata, but in a milder form.
Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus):
cardoon has become important as a medicinal herb in
recent years following the discovery of cynarin. This
bitter-tasting compound, which is found in the leaves,
improves liver and gall bladder function, stimulates
the secretion of digestive juices, especially bile,
and lowers blood cholesterol levels. The leaves are
used internally in the treatment of chronic liver and
gall bladder diseases, jaundice, hepatitis,
arteriosclerosis and the early stages of late-onset
Thistle (Carlina acaulis
) Internally for fluid retention, liver,
gall bladder, and prostate problems, bronchitis, and
skin complaints, such as acne and eczema.
It is used in the form of an infusion to treat
stomach and liver disorders, edema and urine
are applied externally to bathe skin disorders, fungal
infections and wounds and are used as an antiseptic
dried and chopped roots, soaked in wine, stimulate
digestion and soothe the nerves.
Wine extract of 40-50 g of powdered roots/1
litre wine acts as a vermifuge.
Take a wine glass twice daily.
A water extract produces the same effect in
50/50 mixture with vinegar.
Swedish bitters contains the root of the
carline thistle, which possesses bacteriostatic
properties and acts on the stomach as well. The
root is antibiotic, antispasmodic, carminative,
diaphoretic, digestive, mildly diuretic, emetic in
large doses, febrifuge and purgative in large doses. The plant was at one time in great demand as an aphrodisiac,
it is used nowadays in the treatment of spasms of the
digestive tract, gall bladder disorders, dropsy etc.
(Ceratonia siliqua): Carob pods are nutritious and, due to their
high sugar content, sweet-tasting and mildly laxative.
However, a decoction of the pulp is also antidiarrheal, gently
helping to cleanse and relieve irritation within the gut.
It arrests vomiting in infants.
These appear to be contradictory effects, but carob is an
example of how the body responds to herbal medicines in different
ways, according to how the herb is prepared and according to the
specific medical problem.
The bark is strongly astringent and a decoction of it is taken
to treat diarrhea.
Caroba (Jacaranda procera):
Chiefly used by the natives, who prize it highly as a
diaphoretic and diuretic. It is also a safe sedative.
The value of the Jacaranda active principles
has been proved in syphilis and venereal diseases,
being widely used by the aborigines of Brazil and
other South American countries. The leaves have also
been tried in epilepsy for their soothing influence.
It is recommended for those of feeble mentality though
well-nourished in body, with voracious appetite and
addicted to masturbation. Carob Syrups are reputed to
relieve stomach pains and constipation
Carolina Allspice (Calycanthus floridus):
Cherokee tribes brewed the roots and bark as teas
to soothe a variety of ills, and European settlers later
drank similar teas to soothe jangled nerves. The plant
contains an alkaloid that has a powerfully depressant
action on the heart. A fluid extract has been used as an
antiperiodic. A tea made from the root or bark has been
used as a strong emetic and diuretic for kidney and
bladder ailments. A cold tea has been used as eye drops in
the treatment of failing eyesight. An ooze from the bark
has been used to treat children's sores, whilst an
infusion has been used to treat hives.
Carpenter's Square (Scrophularia
marilandica): A tea made from the roots has been
used in the treatment of irregular menses, fevers and
piles. An infusion of the fresh roots in water was used
in the 1800’s to treat anxiety, restlessness and insomnia
in pregnant women. A poultice was used to treat skin
diseases such as impetigo and cradle cap. The entire
plant was used as a tonic, to break a fever by increasing
perspiration, to increase urine flow, and to cure
intestinal worms. The bark of the plant and the roots
were used as treatments for tuberculosis, scabies, and
open wounds. The plant was used at various times to
increase menstrual flow and treat hemorrhoids. A poultice
made from the roots is a folk remedy for cancer.
Carpenter's square is said to have similar properties to
the knotted figwort, S. nodosa: supports
detoxification of the body and it may be used as a
treatment for various kinds of skin disorders.
Carpet Weed (Mollugo
In experiments with mice, Nitric oxide
(NO) release was evaluated in mice peritoneal cell
cultures treated in vivo using the ethanolic
extract of M. verticillata with and without BCG.
The plant extract showed immunostimulatory activity when
peritoneal cells were stimulated in vitro with BCG
antigen only. However, mice peritoneal cells treated
with M. verticillata plus BCG showed a drastic
reduction in NO production when they received the
additional stimulus in vitro with BCG. Ethanolic
extracts of M. verticillata could directly
increase NO release by peritoneal cells, but suppress
the immune response of these cells when treated with BCG
antigen and Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole antigen
(TB). Preliminary phytochemical tests allowed the
detection of quercetin and triterpenoid glycosides in
the ethanolic extract of M. verticillata, and
those compounds are probably responsible for the effect
of this plant material on the immune system.
Carragheen Moss (Gigartina
Because of its
mucus forming properties, carrageenan has been used in
lung diseases and to improve bitter drug taste.
Carrageenan has also been used in cases of digestive
tract irritations and in diarrhea and dysentery. In
France and Great Britain, carrageenan has been used to
treat stomach ulcers due to its mucous properties. When
used against ulcers, the body has no necessity to
gastrointestinally absorb carrageenan, so that
carrageenan acts directly on the mucous surface. Codfish
liver oil emulsions have been prepared with carrageenans.
Cotton-wood soaked in carrageenan decoction has been
used as cataplasm.
Medicinally it is useful in chest and
bronchial infections, as well as in the treatment of
stomach ulcers and diseases of the bladder and kidneys.
A syrup to combat coughs and colds can be made by adding
¼ cup of rinsed carragheen moss and the thinly pared
rind and juice of 2 lemons to 6 cups of water. Boil the
mixture for 10 minutes, add a dessertspoonful of honey
and simmer for a further 10 minutes before straining.
Serve the syrup hot or cold.
Carrion Flower (Smilax
herbacea) Eating the fruit is said to be
effective in treating hoarseness. The parched and
powdered leaves havebeen used as a dressing on burns.
The wilted leaves have been used as a dressing on boils.
The root is analgesic. A decoction has been used in the
treatment of back pains, stomach complaints, lung
disorders and kidney problems.
Carrot, Wild (Daucus carota):
This vegetable is a wonderful cleansing medicine.
It supports the liver, and stimulates urine flow and the
removal of waste by the kidneys.
The juice of organically grown carrots is a delicious drink and
a valuable detoxifier. Carrots
are rich in carotene, which is converted to vitamin A by the liver.
This nutrient acts to improve night blindness as well as vision
in general. The raw root,
grated or mashed, is a safe treatment for threadworms, especially in
children. Wild carrot
leaves are a good diuretic. They
have been used to counter cystitis and kidney stone formation, and to
diminish stones that have already formed.
The seeds are also diuretic and carminative. They stimulate
menstruation and have been used in folk medicine as a treatment for
hangovers. Both leaves
and seeds relieve flatulence and gassy colic and are a useful remedy
for settling the digestion and upsets of the stomach.
Many Pennsylvania Dutch have used wild carrot seed as both an
emmenagogue and a morning-after contraceptive.
Indian researchers have confirmed that carrot seed has
anti-implantation activity in laboratory animals.
One teaspoonful of the seeds is taken daily starting at the
time of ovulation or immediately after unprotected intercourse during
the fertile time and continued for up to one week to prevent
contain 8 compounds that lower blood pressure.
Scottish studies showed that over a period of three weeks, a
daily snack of two carrots lowered cholesterol levels by 10-20% in
study participants. Because
the fiber pectin is the source of most of these benefits, don’t use
a juicer which extracts most of the fiber.
in India have discovered that carrots afford significant protection
for the liver in laboratory animals.
When liver cell injury was induced experimentally with
chemicals, paralleling the liver damage inflicted by chemical
pollutants, experiments showed that lab animals could recover with the
help of carrot extracts which increase the activity of several enzymes
that speed up detoxification of the liver and other organs.
Cascara sagrada (Rhamnus
is a very effective laxative, containing hydroxymethyl
anthraquinones that cause peristalsis of the large
intestine, emodin and other rhamnoid glycosides. It
has been used as such by many First Nations groups.
For example, Cascara bark tea was drunk as a laxative
by Nuxalk, Coast Salish, Nuu-chah-hulth, and
Kwakwaka’wakw, and a decoction of the inner bark and
water was used as a remedy for dysentery. The bark is
often aged before use so it will be less likely to
cause nausea. First introduced to Europe in 1877,
about 3 million pounds of the bark is harvested
annually for use in commercial laxatives.
Squaxin used a Cascara infusion to wash
sores--sometimes people chewed the bark and then spit
it on sores. The bark has also been used to treat
heart strain, internal strains, and biliousness.
Skagit people burn the bark and mix the charcoal with
grease to rub on swellings, and also have employed the
bark in a green dye for mountain goat wool. Makah eat
the fresh berries in July and August. Internally used
for chronic constipation, colitis, digestive
complaints, hemorrhoids, liver problems, and jaundice.
It is a medium-strength laxative and somewhat
weaker than Rhubarb root and Senna leaf.
Externally used to deter nail biting. Source:
Cascarilla (Croton eleuteria):
An aromatic, bitter tonic, with
possibly narcotic properties. It is used in dyspepsia,
intermittent and low fevers, diarrhea and dysentery.
It is a stimulant to mucous membranes, and in chronic
bronchitis is used as an expectorant; while it is
valuable in atonia dyspepsia, flatulence, chronic
diarrhea, nocturnal pollutions, debility and
convalescence. Added to cinchona, it will arrest
vomiting caused by that drug.
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale): The nut is
highly nutritious, containing 45% fat and 20% protein.
The leaves are used in Indian and African herbal medicine
for toothache and gum problems, and in West Africa for
malaria. The bark is used in Ayurvedic medicine to
detoxify snake bite. The roots are purgative.
The gum is used externally for leprosy, corns, and fungal
conditions. The oil between the outer and inner shells of
the nut is caustic and causes an inflammatory reaction
even in small doses. The fruit bark juice and the
nut oil are both said to be folk remedies for calluses,
corns, and warts, cancerous ulcers, and even
elephantiasis. Anacardol and anacardic acid have shown
some activity against Walker carcinosarcoma 256. Decoction
of the astringent bark is given for severe diarrhea and
thrush. Old leaves are applied to skin afflictions and
burns (tannin applied to burns is liepatocarcinogenic).
Oily substance from pericarp is used for cracks on the
feet. Cuna Indians used the bark in herb teas for asthma,
cold, and congestion. The seed oil is believed to be
alexeritic and amebicidal; used to treat gingivitis,
malaria, and syphilitic ulcers. Ayurvedic medicine
recommends the fruit for anthelmintic, aphrodisiac,
ascites, dysentery, fever, inappetence, leucoderma, piles,
tumors, and obstinate ulcers. In the Gold Coast, the bark
and leaves are used for sore gums and toothache. Juice of
the fruit is used for hemoptysis. Sap discutient,
fungicidal, repellent. Leaf decoction gargled for sore
throat. Cubans use the resin for cold treatments. The
plant exhibits hypoglycemic activity. In Malaya, the bark
decoction is used for diarrhea. In Indonesia, older leaves
are poulticed onto burns and skin diseases. Juice from the
apple is used to treat quinsy in Indonesia, dysentery in
the Philippines. In Venezuela, a decoction of the
cashew leaf is used to treat diarrhea and is believed to
be a treatment for diabetes. Pulverized cashew tree
bark, soaked in water for 24 hours is also reported to be
used in Colombia for diabetes. Peruvians have
used a tea of the cashew tree leaf as a treatment for
diarrhea, while a tea from the bark has been used as a
vaginal douche. Leaf infusions have been used to
treat toothache and sore throat and as a febrifuge.
Cassandra (Chamaedaphne calyculata):
A poultice of the leaves has been applied to
inflammations. An infusion of the leaves has been used to
(Cinnamomum cassia): It
is used medicinally in much the same way as Ceylon cinnamon, mainly
for digestive complaints such as flatulent dyspepsia, colic, diarrhea
and nausea, as well as the common cold, rheumatism, kidney and
reproductive complaints. In
Chinese medicine it is used particularly for vascular disorders.
A great deal of research has been carried out in recent years
regarding the pharmacological actions of cassia. Warms the Kidneys and
fortifies the yang: for a wide variety of problems due to
insufficiency of Kidney yang and waning of the gate of vitality.
Usually taken as a powder, pill or
decocted because this causes the loss of the volatile oils which carry
much of its effect.
Cassia Poda (Cassia fistula):
are used in folk remedies for tumors of the abdomen,
glands, liver, stomach, and throat, cancer,
carcinomata, and impostumes of the uterus. Reported to
be aperient, astringent, laxative, purgative, and
vermifuge, Indian laburnum is a folk remedy for burns,
cancer, constipation, convulsions, delirium, diarrhea,
dysuria, epilepsy, gravel, hematuria, pimples, and
glandular tumors. Yunani use the leaves for
inflammation, the flowers for a purgative, the fruit
as antiinflammatory, antipyretic, abortifacient,
demulcent, purgative, refrigerant, good for chest
complaints, eye ailments, flu, heart and liver
ailments, and rheumatism, though suspected of inducing
asthma. Seeds are considered emetic. Konkanese use the
juice to alleviate ringworm and blisters caused by the
marking nut, a relative of poison ivy. Leaf poultices
are applied to chilblains and also used in facial
massage for brain afflictions, and applied externally
for paralysis and rheumatism, also for gout.
Rhodesians use the pulp for anthrax, blood poisoning,
blackwater fever, dysentery, and malaria. Gold Coast
natives use the pulp from around the seed as a safe
and useful purgative. Throughout the Far East, the
uncooked pulp of the pods is a popular remedy for
constipation, thought to be good for the kidneys "as
those who use it much remain free of kidney stones. A
decoction of the root bark is recommended for
cleansing wounds. In the West Indies, the pulp and/or
leaves are poulticed onto inflamed viscera, e.g. the
liver. The bark and leaves are used for skin diseases:
flowers used for fever, root as a diuretic, febrifuge;
for gout and rheumatism.
Ayurvedic medicine describes the fresh sweet pulp
enclosing the labornum’s seed pods as an effective
remedy for colic, while the matured pulp is used to
make a gentle laxative, safe for children and pregnant
women. The seed is recognized as antibilious,
aperitif, carminative, and laxative. Externally, the
bark and leaves are ground into a paste for chronic
skin infections. Distillations from the flowers, and
decoctions made from the powdered root are given for
heart diseases to enlarge the capillaries in the
circulatory system. In clinical tests, its leaves,
stem bark, and fruit pulp were all found to have
antibacterial properties. The root showed antifungal
activity and used for adenopathy, burning sensations,
leprosy, skin diseases, syphilis, and tubercular
glands, The essential oils extracted from various
parts of the tree showed antiviral properties. The
leaves were used for erysipelas, malaria, rheumatism,
and ulcers, the buds for biliousness, constipation,
fever, leprosy, and skin disease, the fruit for
abdominal pain, constipation, fever, heart disease,
and leprosy. It is used in a gentle, fruit-flavored
laxative, usually put up with other laxatives as a
In 1998 researchers in India began to
focus on the use of cassia pods to protect the liver.
In a study, rats given an extract of he leaf suffered
less liver damage from a dose of carbon tetrachloride
than rats that did not receive the extract. The
effect of cassia to reduce the damage was similar to
what was observed I the use of commercially prepared
drugs prescribed to treat liver problems, according to
Castor Oil Plant (Ricinus communis):
Regarded as the best of all laxatives (and in higher doses
a purgative) and especially favored for children and the
aged. It prompts a bowel movement about 3-5 hours after
ingestion. The oil is so effective that it is regularly
used to clear the digestive tract in cases of poisoning.
It should not be used in cases of chronic constipation,
where it might deal with the symptoms but does not treat
the cause. The flavor is somewhat unpleasant, however, and
it can cause nausea in some people. It is also used
externally for itch and ringworm. Externally, a castor oil
fomentation is rubbed over the liver and other areas of
the abdomen. A thick towel that has been rung out in
ginger tea is then applied over the entire abdomen and a
heating pad or hot water bottle is placed over the liver.
This will help draw toxins into and through the liver.
This treatment is excellent for liver disorders, cysts,
growths, warts and other excrescenses. The oil has a
remarkable antidandruff effect. The oil is well-tolerated
by the skin and so is sometimes used as a vehicle for
medicinal and cosmetic preparations. Castor oil congeals
to a gel-mass when the alcoholic solution is distilled in
the presence of sodium salts of higher fatty acids. This
gel is useful in the treatment of dermatosis and is a good
protective in cases of occupational eczemas and
dermatitis. It is rubbed on the temple to treat headache
and is also powdered and applied to abscesses and various
skin infections. The seed is used in Tibetan medicine,
where it is considered to have an acrid, bitter and sweet
taste with a heating potency. It is used in the treatment
of indigestion and as a purgative. A decoction of the
leaves and roots is antitussive, discutient and
expectorant. The leaves are used as a poultice to relieve
headaches and treat boils.
In India, the oil is massaged into the breasts
after childbirth to stimulate milk flow. The leaves of
the castor plant are warmed and applied to a woman’s
breast to increase lactation and the leaf also provides
Ayurvedic doctors with one of the ingredients used in a
mixture which is drunk by a woman to increase milk flow.
Indian herbalists use a poultice of castor oil seeds to
relieve swollen and tender joints in treating lumbago,
sciatica and rheumatism. This entered the Arab
pharmacopoeia, where castor was called “the sesame of
India.” The oil is also used in the treatment of
epilepsy, paralysis, insanity and many other nervous
system disorders. In China the crushed seeds are used to
treat facial palsy.
Boil 5 large leaves in 2 gallons water for 10
minutes to bathe children with measles (alleviates itching
and prevents scarring).
Cat Thyme (Teucrium marum):
The plant is
supposed to possess very active powers and has been
recommended in the treatment of many diseases, being
considered useful in most nervous complaints. It is used
in the treatment of gallbladder and stomach problems, the
leaves being powdered and given in wine. The powdered
leaves, either alone, or mixed with other ingredients of a
like nature, when taken as snuff, have been recommended as
excellent for 'disorders of the head,' under the name of
compound powder of Assarabacca, but lavender flowers are
now generally substituted for Cat Thyme. The root bark
is considerably astringent and has been used for checking
Catarrh Root (Alpinia
aromatic stimulant. Has been used as a snuff in catarrh
and nervous headache. It is used for nonulcer dyspepsia
with flatulence and inflammations of the gastrointestinal
tract and upper respiratory trace. In traditional
medicine it is also used as a tonic for low sexual drive
and as an adjuvant for diabetes and hypertension.
Somewhat similar to ginger
Catgut (Tephrosia virginiana):
At various times it was used to treat rheumatism, fevers,
pulmonary problems, bladder disorders, coughing, hair
loss, and reproductive disorders. The root of this
plant alone, or in combination with other agents, has been
reputed a very efficient remedy in syphilis. The decoction
is also much used as a vermifuge, and is said to be as
efficient and powerful as spigelia. The plant is a mild,
stimulating tonic, having a slight action on the bowels,
and the secretive organs generally, and applicable in the
treatment of many diseases, especially in a certain stage
of typhoid fever, where there is little use of active
medicine. The recommendation was a compound fluid extract
of tephrosia: Take of Tephrosia virginiana (the plant), 8
ounces; Rumex acutus (dock), 2 ounces; water, 4 quarts.
Place the plants in the water, and boil until reduced to 1
quart. Strain, and when intended to be kept, mix with an
equal bulk of brandy or diluted alcohol, and half its
weight of sugar, macerate for several days, and strain
through muslin. The dose is from
to 1 fluid ounce, 2, 3, or 4 times a day A tea made from
the roots is said to make children muscular and strong. A
cold tea is used to improve male potency and also to treat
TB, bladder problems, coughs, irregular menstruation and
other women's complaints. Experimentally, the root has
shown both anticancer and cancer-causing activity. The
leaves have been placed in the shoes in order to treat
fevers and rheumatism.
Catmint (Nepeta sibthorpii):
Several species of Nepeta genus are utilized in folk
medicine for treatment of contusions, rheumatic pains,
fever, cutaneous eruptions. Some species are employed
for their anti-inflammatory properties.
Catnip (Nepata cataria): Catnip
has long been used medicinally as a tea, juice, tincture, infusion and
poultice. Catnip tea is
used for headaches, stomachaches, colic and sleeplessness in children.
It has also been used to treat cancer, insanity, nervousness,
nightmare, scurvy and tuberculosis, while a root extract served as a
mild stimulant. Drinking
two cups of catnip tea a day could significantly reduce the likelihood
of developing cataracts. Catnip
has been employed orally to treat colic, diarrhea, flatulence,
hiccups, whooping cough, the common cold, measles and chicken pox
(reduces the eruptions), asthma, yellow fever, scarlet fever,
smallpox, jaundice and to induce parturition and encourage
were used for hives, sore breasts of nursing mothers and to reduce
swelling. A poultice of
catnip and other herbs was employed to treat aching teeth in the Ozark
Mountains. A tincture
makes a good friction rub for rheumatic and arthritic joints and, as
an ointment, to treats hemorrhoids.
Catnip was sometimes smoked to relieve respiratory ailments.
The fresh leaves can also be chewed for headache.
It’s an old home remedy for colds, nervous tension, fevers
and nightmare. It is
diaphoretic and antispasmodic.
Fresh catnip leaves are preferred for infusion or tincture.
tomentosa): Cat’s claw has a history of use
going back to the time of the Incas, and it has been
continuously used by indigenous peoples of South America
for two thousand years. Cat’s claw has been used by the
Ashaninka Indians of Central Peru to treat asthma,
urinary tract inflammation, arthritis, and rheumatism.
It has also been used by indigenous peoples to treat
general inflammations and to treat wounds. In addition,
some Indian peoples in Colombia are reported to use it
to treat gonorrhea and dysentery. Reportedly, cat's
claw has also been used as a contraceptive by several
different tribes of Peru (but only in excessive
dosages). Dr. Fernando Cabieses, M.D., a noted authority
on Peruvian medicinal plants, explains in his book that
the Asháninka boil 5 to 6 kilograms (about 12 pounds!)
of the root in water until it is reduced to little more
than 1 cup. This decoction is then taken 1 cup daily
during the period of menstruation for three consecutive
months, which supposedly causes sterility for three to
Worldwide research is being conducted
exploring the use of cat’s claw in the treatment of
cancer and AIDS. The triterpenes in the herb boost T
cell activity. Peruvian doctors have been using it in
the treatment of fourteen kinds of cancer, and at least
two compounds have been isolated for use in controlling
viruses. It has impressive anti-inflammatory properties,
making it an excellent tonic for arthritis and
fibromyalgia. It promotes colonic health but may give
some people diarrhea. It is used for inflammatory and
ulcerative conditions such as gastritis, peptic ulcers,
colitis, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids, minor diarrhea.
The alkaloids in the herb appear to target the immune
system, the intestinal tract, and the cardiovascular
system most effectively. It is a very powerful
antioxidant. Peruvian women use it to recover from
childbirth. Herbal extracts should be blended with the
whole herb for greatest efficacy. It can be combined
with Pau d’Arco and Echinacea.
In herbal medicine today, cat's claw
is employed around the world for many different
conditions including immune disorders, gastritis,
ulcers, cancer, arthritis, rheumatism, rheumatic
disorders, neuralgias, chronic inflammation of all
kinds, and such viral diseases as herpes zoster
(shingles). Dr. Brent Davis, D.C., refers to cat's claw
as the "opener of the way" for its ability to cleanse
the entire intestinal tract and its effectiveness in
treating stomach and bowel disorders (such as Crohn's
disease, leaky bowel syndrome, ulcers, gastritis,
diverticulitis, and other inflammatory conditions of the
bowel, stomach, and intestines). .
Chinese herbal medicine, the astringent pu huang pollen
has been employed chiefly to stop internal or external
bleeding. The dried pollen is said to be anticoagulant,
but when roasted with charcoal it becomes hemostatic. The
pollen may be mixed with honey and applied to wounds and
sores, or taken orally to reduce internal bleeding of
almost any kind—for example, nosebleeds, uterine bleeding,
or blood in the urine. The pollen is now also used in the
treatment of angina. Pu huang does not appear to have
been used as a medicine in the European herbal tradition.
The dregs remaining after the pollen has been sifted from
the stamens and sepals can be browned in an oven or hot
skillet and then used as an internal or external
astringent in dysentery and other forms of bowel
hemorrhage. It is used internally in the treatment of
kidney stones, internal hemorrhage of almost any kind,
painful menstruation, abnormal uterine bleeding,
post-partum pains, abscesses and cancer of the lymphatic
system. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women.
Externally, it is used in the treatment of tapeworms,
diarrhea and injuries. An infusion of the root has been
used in the treatment of gravel.
famous of all Brazilian aphrodisiac plants, Catuaba has
been appreciated by the local population for
generations. The Tupi Indians first discovered the
qualities of the plant and composed many songs praising
it. The bark functions as a stimulant of the nervous
system, above all when one deals with functional
impotence of the male genital organs. It is reported
that after drinking 3-4 cups of tea steadily over a
period of time the first symptoms are usually erotic
dreams, and then increased sexual desire. In the
Brazilian state of Minas there is a saying, "Until a
father reaches 60, the son is his; after that, the son
is catuaba's!" A bark decoction is commonly used for
sexual impotency, agitation, nervousness, nerve pain and
weakness, poor memory or forgetfulness, and sexual
weakness. It is employed for many types of nervous
conditions including insomnia, hypochondria, and pain
related to the central nervous system (such as sciatica
and neuralgia). In European herbal medicine catuaba is
considered an aphrodisiac and a brain and nerve
stimulant. A bark tea is used for sexual weakness,
impotence, nervous debility, and exhaustion. Herbalists
and health practitioners in the United States use
catuaba in much the same way: as a tonic for genital
function, as a central nervous system stimulant, for
sexual impotence, general exhaustion and fatigue,
insomnia related to hypertension, agitation, and poor
Cayenne (Capsicum frutescens):
Cayenne is the
preferred species of Capsicum for medicinal use.
Those in climates that eat more hot peppers have les
chronic obstructive lung disease than those on blander
diets. Externally, cayenne makes an excellent liniment
for poor circulation, unbroken chilblains, sprains and
painful joints. Internally, small doses of cayenne
stimulate the appetite and act as an internal cleanser.
Cayenne brings blood and body heat to the surface,
stimulating sweating and cooling the body. It regulates
the blood flow, equalizing and strengthening the heart,
arteries, capillaries and nerves. It is a good tonic and
is specific for the circulatory and digestive system. It
may be used in flatulent dyspepsia and colic. It is used
for treating debility and for warding off colds. Eating
hot peppers temporarily boosts the body’s metabolic rate
by about 25%. Cayenne acts as an energy stimulant,
slightly encouraging the adrenals to produce cortisone.
The dried fruit is
a powerful local stimulant with no narcotic effect, it is
most useful in atony of the intestines and stomach. It has
proved efficacious in dilating blood vessels and thus
relieving chronic congestion of people addicted to drink.
It is sometimes used as a tonic and is said to be
unequalled in warding off disease (probably due to the
high vitamin C content). Used externally, it is a strong
rubefacient stimulating the circulation, aiding the
removal of waste products and increasing the flow of
nutrients to the tissues. It is applied as a cataplasm or
linament. It has also been powdered and placed inside
socks as a traditional remedy for those prone to cold
feet. These pungent fruited peppers are important in the
tropics as gastrointestinal detoxicants and food
Capsicin has been found to reduce “substance
P,” a chemical that carries pain messages from nerve
endings to the skin to the central nervous system.
Clinical trials showed that 75% of the people who applied
a capsicin cream on their shingles disease experienced
substantial pain relief with only an occasional burning
sensation. It is being investigated for use on other
painful skin problems, such as diabetic nerve damage,
psoriasis, and post surgical pain, and has been developed
into Zostrix, an over-the-counter cream. A small mount of
cayenne stabilizes blood pressure and reduces excessive
bleeding anywhere in the country. The leaves have
been used to treat toothache.
radiata): An infusion of the dried,
powdered leaves, or the root, has been used in the
treatment of diarrhea. A cooled decoction of the roots
has been used in the treatment of asthma, colds,
digestive complaints etc. An infusion of the plant has
been used as a contraceptive. Primarily a medicine
for the digestive tract. Similar to Gentian in its
effect, it is more energetic and irritating. A
stimulant to stomach and small intestinal secretions
and contractions, it makes a bitter tonic especially
useful for the elderly. The dried root is powdered,
6-8 tablespoons added to a pint of brandy and it is
steeped for at least a week; a tablespoon is taken
before meals. A pinch of the powder in sweetened
water has a similar effect. One-half to one teaspoon
of the root powder boiled in water will act as a
laxative-cathartic. More than a teaspoon can act as
an irritant to the large intestine, and in any
respect, Cebadilla should be used as a laxative only
occasionally. The root can also serve as a fungicide
for athlete’s foot and the like. Sometimes effective
as a tincture for ringworm, but care should be taken
when used on children it can irritate the skin. In
New Mexico the powdered root is melted in lard and
applied on the scalp to kill lice or rubbed on the
legs to kill scabies.
(Atlas cedar); Cedrus deodara (Himalayan cedar); Cedrus
libani (cedar of Lebanon); Juniperus virginiana
Cedarwood, Texas (Juniperus
Mexico the Native Americans use cedarwood oil for skin
rashes. It is also used for arthritis and rheumatism
Celandine (Chelidonium majus) : Greater celandine acts as a mild sedative, relaxing the muscles of the
bronchial tubes, intestines, and other organs. In both Western and Chinese herbal traditions, it has been
used to treat bronchitis, whooping cough and asthma. The herb’s antispasmodic effect also extends to the
gallbladder, where it helps to improve bile flow.
This would partly account for its use in treating jaundice,
gallstones, and gallbladder pain, as well as its longstanding
reputation as a detoxifying herb.
The tincture or infusion of the leaf will stimulate and clean
the liver. In one study,
researchers gave tablets containing chelidonine to 60 people with
symptoms of gallstones for six weeks. Doctors reported a significant reduction in symptoms.
Greater celandine’s sedative action does not, however, extend
to the uterus—it causes the muscles of this organ to contract.
Externally the salve has been used to clear eczema, scrofula
and herpes. The juice
applied to the eyes will clear the vision, and applied to wounds will
promote healing. The
fresh juice is dabbed two or three times a day on warts, ringworm and
corns. (Do not allow it to touch other parts of the skin.)
The fresh juice mixed with milk is used to help remove
cataracts and the white spots that form on the cornea.
An ointment of the roots and leaves boiled in oil or lard is an
excellent treatment for hemorrhoids.
Only the dried herb should be taken internally.
The fluid extract is made with the fresh herb. Ukrain, a derivate of celandine, is used for solid
tumors such as breast, lung, and colon, as opposed to leukemia and
myeloma, It can be beneficial even when used in combination with Taxol
plus supporting the liver function.
Celandine, Lesser (Ranunculus
Internally and externally used for hemorrhoids.
Externally also used for perineal damage after
Combines well with plantain, marigold for
agrimony for the internal treatment of piles.
(Apium graveolens dulce):
: Until the 19th century the essential oils was
recommended as a cure for rheumatism.
It is believed to be a tonic for asthma and herbalists use it
to treat liver diseases, bronchitis, fever and flatulence. It is also
recommended as a diuretic, tranquilizer, sedative and menstruation
promoter and as treatment for gout, arthritis, obesity, anxiety and
lack of appetite. Celery
seed tea is said to promote rest and sleep.
It is good for nervous disorders and enjoys aphrodisiac
traditional Ayurvedic physicians have prescribed celery seed as a
diuretic and as a treatment for colds, flu, indigestion, arthritis and
diseases of the liver and spleen.
of the most useful bitter herbs, centaury strengthens
digestive function, especially within the stomach. It is
a useful herb in dyspepsia and in any condition where a
sluggish digestion is involved. By increasing stomach
secretions, it hastens the breakdown of food.
It also stimulates the appetite and increases
Indicated in appetite loss (anorexia) when it is
associated with liver weakness.
Centaury needs to be taken over some weeks.
The preparation should be slowly sipped so that
the components can stimulate reflex activity throughout
the upper digestive tract.
Combines well with Meadowsweet, Marshmallow Root
and Chamomile in dyspepsia.
In anorexia it is indicated with burdock root and
It serves as a blood purifier, working on the
kidneys and liver.
Externally the juice applied to the eyes will
clear the vision, and applied to wounds will help
The decoction applied to the skin regularly will
clear the skin of freckles and spots.
A decoction externally applied also will destroy
ice and other parasites in the hair.
American (Sabatia angularis)
This herb, which should be gathered
when in full bloom, is an active tonic, of the more
stimulating class, with moderate and somewhat diffusive
relaxing qualities, allied to the American gentian,
but rather milder. Its chief power is
exerted upon the stomach, gall-ducts, and spleen; and
the general circulation and uterus feel it moderately.
A warm infusion gently promotes the menstrual
secretion, in cases of debility. Cold
preparations increase appetite and digestion in weak and
flaccid conditions of the stomach, and may be used for
chronic dyspepsia and general debility. By
maintaining the portal circulation somewhat vigorously,
it proves of eminent service for the intermediate
treatment of agues; and though not a nervine stimulant
and antiperiodic as cinchona is, it is of decided value
against intermittents where the cinchona preparations
(and similar antiperiodics) prove too exciting to the
nerve centers. In cases of this class, I have
several times arrested ague paroxysms by the fluid
extract of this plant alone, with suitable daily
hepatics; yet it is not strong enough to meet the chills
of deeply-prostrated or congested cases. It
makes an excellent tonic addendum to such agents as
fraxinus, angustura, or euonymus, in treating chronic
biliousness with indigestion; and may be used to
advantage with caulophyllum, convallaria, and similar
uterine remedies, in chronic prolapsus, leucorrhea,
hysteria, etc. Its sustaining influence is
shown to excellent advantage in the treatment of night
sweats, exhaustion from excessive purulent discharges,
recovery from malignant scarlatina, and other prostrated
conditions. Some use it for worms, as a tonic.
Usually given by infusion, made by digesting
an ounce of the herb in a pint of hot water; of which a
fluid ounce may be given every two or three hours during
the intermission of an ague, or half a fluid ounce every
three hours as a tonic.
Century Plant (Agave americana):
leaves used medicinally by Indians of
the Southwestern US. Also a modern source of
steroids. A demulcent, laxative and antiseptic, agave
sap is a soothing and restorative remedy for many
digestive ailments. It is used to treat ulcers and
inflammatory conditions affecting the stomach and
intestines, protecting these parts from infection and
irritation and encouraging healing. Agave has also
been employed to treat a wide range of other
conditions, including syphilis, tuberculosis,
jaundice, and liver disease. Agave sap has very
soothing properties and can be used interchangeably
with aloe vera on topical wounds and burns. The sisal
agave is a source of hecogenin, the substance that is
the starting point in the production of
corticosteroids. Water in which agave fiber has been
soaked for a day can be used as a scalp disinfectant
and tonic in cases of falling hair.
charantia): Medicinally, the plant has a long
history of uses by the indigenous people of the Amazon.
The fruit juice and/or a leaf tea is employed for
diabetes, colic, sores and wounds, infections, worms and
parasites, as an emmenogogue, and for measles, hepatitis,
and fevers. The unripe fruit is used mainly as a treatment
for late-onset diabetes. The ripe fruit is a stomach
tonic and induces menstruation. In Turkey, the fruit is
employed to treat ulcers. The fruit is much used in the
West Indies as a cure-all for worms, urinary stones, and
fever. The juice of the fruit is used as a purgative. It
is also prescribed for colic and gas. A decoction of the
leaves is taken for liver problems and colitis, and may be
applied to eruptive skin conditions. The leaves are also
used for fevers. Externally the fruit is used for
hemorrhoids, chapped skin and burns. The seed oil is used
on wounds. Cerasee seeds were investigated in China in the
1980s as a potential contraceptive. Some research
suggests that the plant may be harmful to the liver. The
fruit demonstrably lowers sugar levels in the blood and
urine. It is traditionally used by Ayurvedic doctors to
treat anorexia, and to dissolve kidney stones resulting
from dehydration during the Indian summer. In the past,
the vegetable was crushed with black pepper and applied
around the eyes as an aid to night blindness. Although
this cure is no longer used, the whole plant is still
powdered and used as a highly effective herbal dusting
powder for wounds and skin diseases. The gourd is
renowned not just for its antidiabetic action, but for its
capacity to lower exaggerated sexual drive. The ripe
fruit of bitter melon has been shown to exhibit some
remarkable anticancer effects, especially leukemia.
known as alpha- and beta-momorcharin which are present in
the seeds, fruit and leaves have shown to inhibit the AIDS
virus in vitro (in the test tube only). In 1996,
scientists performing this research filed patent on a
novel protein found and extracted from the fruit and seeds
of Bitter Melon and which they named "MAP 30." The patent
states it's invention, MAP 30, is: "useful for treating
tumors and HIV infections... In treating HIV infections,
the protein is administered alone or in conjunction with
conventional AIDS therapies." A clinical study was also
published showing MAP 30's antiviral activity also was
relative to the herpes virus in vitro. A novel
phytochemical in bitter melon has clinically demonstrated
an ability to inhibit the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which
is thought to be linked to the pathogenesis and
replication of not only psoriasis but leukemia and cancer
as well. Over the years other scientists have documented
other in vitro antimicrobial benefits of Bitter Melon
against numerous pathogens including Helicobacter pylori,
Epstein-Barr virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The immunosuppressive effect of the plant may be of
benefit in the management of graft rejections and organ
transplants and could benefit the management of several
common autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis
manghas): Used much like digitalis.
Leadwort (Plumbago zeylanica)...Ceylon
leadwort root is acrid and stimulates sweating. In Nigeria, the leaves are used in soup as a remedy against
intestinal worms and fever. In Ghana the root is
administered as an enema to treat piles. In the Ivory
coast and Upper Volta, the root is used to treat
Nepal, a decoction of the root is used to treat
Indian herbal medicine, the leaves and root are used
to treat infections and digestive problems such as
root is used as a vesicant, appetizer, used in
skin diseases, diarrhea, dyspepsia, piles and anasarca.
A paste of the root made in vinegar, milk or salt and
water is an external application in leprosy and other
skin ailments. It is also used in influenza and black-water fever. The root bark used as a tincture is a
sudorific and antiperiodic. The milky juice of the
plant is used in scabies and ulcers.
The plumbago root is an emmenagogue and is used
to procure abortion by a piece of the root being
introduced to Cervex Uteri.
Externally, a paste of the leaves and root is
applied to painful rheumatic areas or to chronic and
itchy skin problems.
The paste acts as a counterirritant.
By raising blisters and increasing circulation,
it speeds the clearing of toxins from the affected
is stimulant and strengthens the stomach and aids its action. It
increases digestive powders and stimulate appetite.
Cha de Bugre (Cordia
It is a great appetite suppressant - but rather than
cutting off appetite all together (then causing
intense hunger when it wears off at the wrong time)
it gives one a sense of being full and satiated
after eating only a few bites of food. This seems to
promote much smaller meals, more often, which is
what many practitioners believe is better for
sustained weight loss and keeping the metabolism
going throughout the day. It works best if taken 30
minutes to one hour prior to a meal. It is a mild
diuretic and is useful in relieving water
retention. It also helps to avoid the formation of
fatty deposits. It is also considered a good
general heart tonic which can help stimulate
circulation and is used in Brazil and Haiti as a tea
to help relieve coughs.
chamomile has been taken for digestive problems since
at least the 1st century AD.
Gentle and efficacious, it is very suitable for
children. The herb is valuable for pain, indigestion,
acidity, gas, gastritis, bloating, and colic.
It is also used for hiatus hernia, peptic
ulcer, Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome.
German chamomile, which contains spiroether and
bisabolol, very strong antispasmodics, relax tense,
aching muscles and eases menstrual pain.
It also appears to have relaxing action on the
smooth muscle lining of the digestive tract.
One study shows chamomile relaxes the digestive
tract as well as the opium-based drug papaverine.
Chamomile also may help prevent stomach ulcers
and speed their healing. In one experiment, two groups of animals were fed a chemical
known to cause ulcers.
Those also given chamomile developed
Then the animals who developed ulcers were
divided into two groups.
Those fed chamomile recovered more quickly.
It also relieves irritability and promotes
sleep, especially in children.
German chamomile is useful for hay fever and
proazulenes in the herb produce chamazulene on steam
distillation, which is markedly antiallergenic.
Externally, it can be applied to sore, itchy
skin and eczema.
It also relieves eyestrain.
A cream made from German chamomile was tested
in 1987 for its ability to heal wounds and produced
very good results.
Apply it externally for disinfecting and
anti-inflammatory treatments in the form of packs,
baths, and compresses using a strong tea, diluted
chamomile tincture or a liquid chamomile extract.
In 1993, a trial using German chamomile and 4
other herbs showed them to be most effective at easing
Historically, chamomile poultices have been
placed on cancers, and its sesquiterpene lactones do
show immune system-stimulating and antitumor activity.
Inflamed oral mucosa can also be treated with
chamomile tea. For stomatitis, an uncomfortable inflammation of the
mouth’s mucous membranes, and canker sores, the
mouth is rinsed with the tea or a liquid chamomile
extract into one glass of water.
Due to its antispasmodic properties Chamomile
is a good remedy for all cramping pains, especially
for abdominal cramping in children. At the same time it has a carminative effect of relieving
flatulence. In pediatric medicine chamomile is used as
a tea or syrup. The
effect can be increased by placing a hot chamomile pad
on the painful area.
To treat cramps, mix equal parts of chamomile
flowers and silverweed to make a tea.
Chamomile is a classic remedy for teething
pains in children.
For this, use chamomile in its homeopathic form
or as teething tablets.
Chamomile, Roman (Chamaemelum
A remedy for the digestive system, Roman chamomile
is often used interchangeably with German chamomile.
However, an infusion of Roman chamomile has a more
pronounced bitter action than its German namesake.
It is an excellent treatment for nausea, vomiting,
indigestion, and loss of appetite. It is also
sedative, antispasmodic and mildly analgesic, and will
relieve colic, cramps, and other cramping pains.
By stimulating digestive secretions and relaxing the
muscles of the gut, it helps normalize digestive
function. Roman chamomile may also be taken for
headaches and migraine, even by children. Its anti-inflammatory and antiallergenic properties make it
helpful for irritated skin. Source:
febrifuga): This plant is commonly used in
Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of
the 50 fundamental herbs. The leaves are purgative. They
are used in the treatment of stomach cancer. A decoction
of the stem bark is used in the treatment of fevers. The
root is emetic, expectorant, febrifuge and purgative.
This plant is 26 times more powerful than quinine in the
treatment of malaria but causes vomiting. Substances in
the plant are 100 times more powerful than quinine, but
they are poisonous. Internally it is used for malaria
and feverish states
Chaparal (Larrea tridentata
): Chaparal is used for treating such ailments as: tuberculosis,
bowel complaints, stomach ulcers and bowel disorders, cancers, and
colds and flu. It is found to be beneficial to the walls of
capillaries throughout the body, and so are good to take regularly in
cases of capillary fragility. Chaparal
contains N.D.G.A.. It is responsible for inhibiting several enzyme
reactions, including lipo oxyginase, which is responsible for some
unhealthy inflammatory and immune-system responses. It has been shown
to reduce inflammatory histamine responses in the lung, which is good
news for asthma sufferers. N.D.G.A. is one of the most highly anti-oxidant
substances known to man. Several types of tumors, such as those in
uterine fibroids and fibrosystic breast disease, can be helped
immensely by a concentrated extract of the plant. Chaparal can improve liver function, causing the liver
metablolism to speed up, clearing toxins, and improving the livers'
ability to synthesize fatty acids into high density lipids (HDLs....the
good quality cholesterol). The low density lipids levels (LDLs....the
poor quality cholesterol) decrease.
The strong anti-oxident effects of Larrea t. appear to repair
free radical damage caused by drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines.
uses of the herb include poultices placed on aching joints, and the
tea or a fomentation (applied several times per day and left on the
area) for such things as ringworm, skin fungi, and athletes' foot.
Has also been used for reducing fibroids
A study in the Journal of
Dental Research showed chaparral mouthwash reduced cavities by
and 5-hydroxyeicosatatraenois acid are usually high in the synovial
fluid of arthritis sufferers which means Chapparal’s ability to
inhibit these can help here as well.
Larrea contains active flavonoids and ligans that, in addition
to being anti-oxidants, act as antifungals, antibiotics, and
antivirals. It is in this last capacity, as an antiviral that prompted
investigations into its ability to inhibit the spl promoter HIV and as
an inhibitor of Herpes simplex-1 in cell cultures; as well as Kaposi's
sarcoma virus. Clinical
evaluations consisted of testimonies from close to 36 persons. Larrea
was prepared as an extract in an aloe-based lotion and was effective
in reversing symptoms in nearly all cases of HSV-1 and shingles within
12-24 hours and in greatly reducing the severity of sores from
Kaposi's sarcoma in people in full-blown AIDS. The lotion proved to
work faster and to be more effective than acyclovir, the main drug for
applied to the skin as a tea, tincture, or salve, Chaparral slows down
the rate of bacterial grown and kills it with its antimicrobial
activity. Chaparral will
also help dry skin, brittle hair and nails and cracks in the hands or
erecta): Internally it is used as a tea for
amebic dysentery, possibly hepatic amebiasis and for
loss of appetite and nonulcer dyspepsia with fullness,
macraphyllus): An herbal tea is made from the
leaves. The taste is a little strong and honey or
stevia can be mixed in to sweeten it. Influential in the
treatment of arthritis, rheumatism, poor circulation,
blemishes, skin eruptions,
liver ailments, kidney and urinary infections,
syphilis, and dermatitis
Tree (Vitex agnus-castus
in the 17th century, herbalist Gerard wrote
that the seeds and leaves helped with pain and
inflammation of the uterus.
The hormonelike substances found in the seeds
help to correct female hormonal imbalances, such as
those that can occur during menopause, premenstrual
syndrome, or menstruation, and also help dissolve
fibroids and cysts.
German researchers suggest the berries increase
production of luteinizing hormone and prolactin.
Another study adds the increase of the hormone
progesterone to the list. The seeds do stimulate mother’s milk flow as shown in a
clinical study when 100 nursing mothers taking chaste
seeds were compared to those who were not.
Christopher Hobbs suggests its use during the
first 3 months only of pregnancy to help prevent
miscarriage and, with ginger, to allay morning
berries can help regulate periods when there is
excessive or too frequent bleeding.
It also reestablishes normal ovulation after
contraceptive pills have been used.
In women without ovaries, chasteberry appears
to lessen extremes of hormonal imbalance, perhaps
through indirect effects on the endocrine system,
liver and circulation. Women with PMS with significant
depression should probably steer clear of chasteberry.
Some research suggests that PMS with depression
is caused by excess progesterone, and chasteberry is
said to raise progesterone levels.
Chasteberry may help some women trying to
conceive if infertility is due to low progesterone
of the research has been done on a chaste berry
extract called Agnolyt.
When 53 women with excessive bleeding and short
menstrual cycles were given this product, 65% showed
improvement and about 47% were cured.
Those over age 20 experienced the most
studies with Agnolyt found the chaste berry helps
control acne in both young women and young men. Source:
The oil, and the crushed
seed, have long been used in southeast Asia to treat
various skin diseases like scabies, eczema,
psoriasis, scrofula, ringworm, and intestinal
worms. And it has been shown that the active
principles of the oil (hydnocarpic and chaulmoogric
acids) are strongly antibacterial. For this reason
Caulmoogra is employed in Hindu medicine to treat
leprosy. The bark contains principles capable of
reducing fevers. Oil is given as an emulsion or by
injection. Seed used externally and internally. It
is usually applied externally as a dressing for skin
diseases: combined with walnut oil and pork lard for
ringworm; with calomel and sesame oil for leprosy;
and with sulfur and camphor for scabies. In India
the seeds are considered to be an alternative
tonic. The seeds may be taken powdered in the form
of pills. Was first mentioned in Chinese medical
literature in 1347, and its use spread worldwide as
a treatment for serious skin diseases.
chebula)....Laxative and astringent, the fruit gently
improves bowel regularity without excessively
irritating the colon.
Like Chinese rhubarb, chebulic myrobalan may
be used as a treatment for diarrhea and dysentery.
The fruit’s tannins protect the gut wall from
irritation and infection, and tend to reduce
intestinal secretions. Likewise, the fruit helps to counter acidic indigestion and
decoction of chebulic myrobalan may be used as a
gargle and mouthwash, as a lotion for sore and
inflamed eyes, and as a douche for vaginitis and
excessive vaginal discharge.
The dried fruits and seeds are prescribed in
Ayurvedic medicine for such illnesses as dermatosis,
edema, and urinary infections.
It is also considered an excellent blood
powdered, it is used as a dentifrice, and for
bleeding or ulcerated gums. Coarsely powdered and
smoked in a pipe, it is used to relieve asthma.
TCM: Indications: Chronic diarrhea and dysentery;
prolapse of rectum; asthma and coughs due to empty
lungs; leukorrhea; menorrhagia
Most useful in the chronic
bronchitis of elderly people and in chronic catarrh of
the respiratory organs.
Cherokee Rose (Rosa
laevigata): The leaves are a
famous vulnerary. The fruits, root and leaves stabilize
the kidney. A decoction is used in the treatment of
chronic dysentery, urinary tract infections, wet dreams,
prolapse of the uterus, menstrual irregularities and
traumatic injuries. The root bark is astringent and used
in the treatment of diarrhea and menorrhagia. The dried
fruits are used internally in the treatment of urinary
dysfunction, infertility, seminal emissions, urorrhea,
leucorrhea and chronic diarrhea. The root is used in the
treatment of uteral prolapse. The flowers are used in the
treatment of dysentery and to restore hair cover. The
fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source
of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and
E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a
fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is
fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a
food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer
and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of
Cherry, Cornelian (Cornus mas)
The fruits have a mildly astringent action. The same
fruits, when eaten fresh, are a good gastro-intestinal
astringent and used for bowel complaints and fevers,
while also used in the treatment of cholera. Apart
from its astringent properties, cornel bark can be used
as a tonic and febrifuge. The flowers are used in the
treatment of diarrhea.
Cherry, Indian (Rhamnus
carolinianus): A tea made from the bark is
emetic and strongly laxative. It is used in the
treatment of constipation with nervous or muscular atony
of the intestines. An infusion of the wood has been
used in the treatment of jaundice.
Laurel (Prunus lauroceerasus): The fresh leaves
are of value in the treatment of coughs, whooping cough,
asthma, dyspepsia and indigestion. Externally, a cold
infusion of the leaves is used as a wash for eye
infections. A reliable sedative and frequently the
principal agent in cough medicine. Cherry-laurel water
(Aqua Laurocerasi) is produced by distillation. In
homeopathy, a tincture produced from the leaves is used as
a sedative. It may also be used externally in soothing
(Anthriscus cerefolium) A
strong infusion of chervil will ease gnat and mosquito bites, dabbed
on the affected area at regular intervals.
Pliny thought that hiccups could be stopped by drinking vinegar
containing the seed of chervil and that it was good for stomach
disorders. During the
time of the plague, chervil roots were boiled and eaten as a
of chervil leaves have been laid on oils, bruises, and other skin
afflictions by the ancient Arabians, Greeks, Romans, and Europeans. It was boiled in wine for urinary disorders and for use as a
speedy diuretic. The
juice pressed out of the fresh flowering herb has been used for
scrofula, eczema, gout stones, abscesses, dropsy, and women’s
abdominal complaints. The infusion is popularly used in Europe to
lower blood pressure.
Chestnut, American (Castanea dentata):
The Indians made a tea from
the leaves to treat whooping cough and the same tea has
been used as a sedative and tonic. The bark was used to
treat worms and dysentery.
Chestnut, Chinese (Castanea
mollissima): A decoction of the burrs is used in
the treatment of diarrhea, uncontrollable nose bleed,
dysentery, regurgitation and profound thirst. The
flowers are used in the treatment of scrofula. The stem
bark is used to treat poisoned wounds whilst the stem
sap is used to treat lacquer poisoning.
Chestnut, Malabar (Pachira
beverage tea to build the blood in old age, to treat
anemia and exhaustion, and for low blood pressure. For
kidney pain, cut a seed form the fruit in quarters; boil
in 1 cup of water for 5 minutes and drink before
breakfast for 3 consecutive days. Boil a piece of bark
2.5 x 10 cm in 3 cups water for 10 minutes; drink ½ cup
6 times daily as a general tonic to build blood and
Sweet (Castanea sativa)...All parts of the
tree are rich in tannin, used medicinally as an
astringent useful in the treatment of bleeding,
diarrhea, etc.. An
infusion of sweet chestnut leaves treats whopping cough,
bronchitis, and bronchial congestion.
The preparation tightens the mucous membranes and
inhibits racking coughs. A decoction of leaves or bark is also valuable as a gargle
for sore throats and may be taken for diarrhea. The
leaves are also used to treat rheumatic conditions,
lower back pain, and stiff joints or muscles.
rhombifolia): The Sida species is one of the
most important family of medicinal plants in India. In
Unani medicine, the leaves and roots are used, piles,
gonorrhea, anti-soud, diuretic, aphrodisiac. Root of
these herbs are held in great repute in treatment of
rheumatism. Stems abound in mucilage and are employed as
demulcents and emollients both for external and internal
use. The herb is also useful in calculous troubles and
as a febrifuge with pepper. Mucilage is used for
scorpion sting. The Aborigines used the decocted root
for diarrhea and ate the raw root for indigestion. In
India the plant has been used for consumption and
rheumatism and in Europe for tuberculosis.
Historically used to treat both internal and external
of stems and leaves used to ease arthritis and pains of the joints,
cuts, and skin irritations.
It may soothe severe itchiness and is often used to relieve
eczema, varicose veins and nettle rash.
An infusion of the fresh or dried plant may be added to a bath,
where the herb’s emollient properties will help reduce inflammation,
in rheumatic joints for example, and encourage tissue repair.
It may be taken internally to treat chest ailments and in small
quantities, it also aids digestion.
The saponins in chickweed are poorly absorbed through the
intestinal walls, but apparently increase the permeability of the
mucous membranes sufficiently to produce expectorant effects on the
throat and increase the absorption of nutrients, especially minerals,
from the digestive tract.
Homeopathic remedy for rheumatism.
The root of S. dichotoma is used in China as a cooling herb in
fevers and to stop nosebleeds and heavy menstrual bleeding.
It is also given as a tonic for malnourished children.
Chickweed Wintergreen (Trientalis
europaea): Rare and not in common use. Where
available the ointment can be made and used as a
treatment for wounds. An infusion of the leaves is
taken as a blood purifier and for treating eczema. The
root is emetic. During the Middle Ages chickweed
wintergreen was reputed to heal wounds and cure blood
intybus): : Chicory has been
an esteemed medical plant ever since the Roman physician Galen called
it “the friend of the liver” some 1,800 years ago. A syrup of chicory, rhubarb and oats was given to patients
with liver ailments. It
was also considered valuable for treating a variety of other ailments. A syrup of the whole plant was prepared with sugar and taken
to cure insomnia. The
bruised fresh leaves were applied externally for healing eye
inflammations and boiled in broth for strengthening the digestion of
the persons with weak stomachs. An
infusion of the leaves was also used to reduce fever in children.
A distilled water of chicory or the juice pressed from it was
good for pregnant women and especially to soothe nursing breasts that
were swollen from too much milk.
is an excellent bitter tonic for the liver and digestive tract.
Recommended for loss of appetite and dyspepsia.
The root is therapeutically similar to dandelion root,
supporting the action of the stomach and liver and cleansing the
urinary tract. Chicory is
also taken for rheumatic conditions and gout, and as milk laxative, one particularly appropriate for children.
An infusion of the leaves and flowers also aids the digestion.
A decoction may alleviate gallstones and kidney stones and aid in the
production of bile.
treated rapid heartbeat with chicory root, and scientists have
discovered a digitalis-like principle in both the dried and roasted
root that decreases the heart rate and amplitude.
Conducted studies on rats show that inulin from chicory seems
very effective in promoting proprionic fermentation and enhances the
calcium content of the large intestines. Experiments with the isolated toad heart show that chicory
extracts reduce cardiac rate in a manner similar to quinidine.
These findings suggest chicory constituents may be effective in
treatment of disorders involving tachycardia, arrhythmias and
also has been found to significantly lower cholesterol and blood sugar
sesquiterpene lactones found in roasted root kill bacteria.
used for diabetes, dry coughs, abscesses, childbirth
(second stage of labor), and abortion (tubers);
bronchial infections with thick phlegm, chest pain and
tightness; dry constipation, and lung and breast
tumors (fruits). Fruits are traditionally prepared as a winter soup to
ward off colds and influenza.
Trichosanthin was isolated from the root tuber of a
Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowii
Maximowicz and was identified as the active component
of Tian Hua Fen, a Chinese medicine described as early
as the 16th century as a treatment for various kinds
of ulcer. Since the discovery of its specific
injurious effects on human placental trophoblasts in
the 1970's, trichosanthin has been used clinically in
China to induce abortion and to treat diseases of
trophoblastic origin such as hydatiform mole, invasive
mole and choriocarcinoma. Soon after the laboratory
finding in 1989 by McGrath et al. that trichosanthin
appeared to inhibit the HIV-1 replication in both
acutely infected T-lymphoblastoid cells and in
chronically infected macrophages, and selectively
killed HIV-infected cells while leaving uninfected
cells unharmed, clinical trials of trichosanthin as a
potential treatment for HIV were carried out in USA.
Trichosanthin attacks the life cycle of the virus at
an entirely different point from AZT and related
drugs, and in other words, it has a unique mechanism
of action complementary to other drugs. Present
clinical reports showed that trichosanthin has some
curing effects on AIDS patients and suggested it to be
a possible treatment that may fill the gap in the
treatment of HIV disease.
fendleri): The leaves and seeds are brewed as a
tea for weak stomach and indigestion with gas. Steeped
in whiskey or tequila, a sip serves the same purpose.
Simple tea of leaves and seeds.
Root (Smilax china): The root is
considered useful when taken internally in the treatment
of old syphilitic cases and is also used for certain skin
diseases, including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout,
enteritis, urinary tract infections, skin ulcers etc.
Large doses can cause nausea and vomiting, which is
valuable in weakened and depraved conditions due to a
poisoned state of the blood.
Chinaberry (Melia azedarach):
externally in the treatment of rheumatism. An aqueous
extract reduces the intensity of asthmatic attacks. A
decoction is astringent and stomachic. The leaves are
harvested during the growing season and can be used fresh
or dried. The flowers and leaves are applied as a
poultice in the treatment of neuralgia and nervous
headache. The stembark is used as a tonic in India. The
fruit pulp is used as a vermifuge. The seed is
antirheumatic. It is used externally. The rootbark is
highly effective against ringworm and other parasitic skin
diseases. A gum that exudes from the tree is considered
by some to have aphrodisiac properties. Usually combined
with Glycyrrhiza glabra to reduce toxicity for
Angelica Tree (Aralia
stem and root are used as a warming painkilling herb in
the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The root is also
considered to be useful in the treatment of diabetes and
dysmenorrhoea. Some caution is advised since the bark is
considered to be slightly poisonous. The plant also
relieves flatulence. It regulates body moisture and promotes
the health of the circulatory and respiratory systems.
The roots and stems are
used in decoctions. Single dose: 31-62g.
Studies in vitro showed that
the water extract of herb had cytotoxical effect on
esophageal cell line and tests in vivo indicated that it
was effective against SAK, HepS, EAC, s180, and U14
Chinese Arborvitae (Thuja
orientalis): A bitter,
astringent, cooling herb that controls bleeding and
coughing, stimulates the uterus, encourages hair growth,
and is expectorant and antibacterial (foliage); a sweet
sedative, mildly laxative herb (seeds) Internally used
for coughs, hemorrhage, excessive menstruation,
bronchitis, asthma, skin infections, mumps, bacterial
dysentery, arthritic pain, and premature baldness
(foliage); and for palpitations, insomnia, nervous
disorders, and constipation in the elderly (seeds). The
root bark is used in the treatment of burns and scalds.
The stems are used in the treatment of coughs, colds,
dysentery, rheumatism and parasitic skin diseases.
Chinese Clematis (Clematis chinensis):
A decoction of the root is taken internally in the
treatment of rheumatism and arthritis, tetanus and
cold-type stomach-ache. The plant has a history of folk
use in the treatment of cancer. The root contains anemonin,
this has antibacterial, analgesic, sedative and
antispasmodic actions. It also inhibits the heart and
central nervous system and is rubefacient. 15 g of the
drug in decoction with 250g of rice vinegar dissolves fish
bones lodged in the throat
Chinese Goldthread (Coptis chinensis):
Lantern (Physalis alkekengi):
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki):
Pink (Dianthus chinensis):
Plum Tree (Prunus japonica):
Raspberry (Rubus coreanus):
Sumac (Rhus chinensis):
Violet (Viola yesoensis):
White Olive (Canarium
album): In Chinese medicine the raw fruit
is an antidote for eating poisonous fish. It is used
for sore throat, toothache, inebriation, and diarrhea.
The ripe fruit is edible and considered sedative. It is
used as a liver tonic and to eliminate apprehension.
The powdered seed has been used to treat earache,
inflammation. It is believed to also dissolve fish
bones swallowed accidentally, while juice from the
kernel is reputed to soften bones lodged in the throat.
Woad (Isatis indigotica):
Wolfberry (Lycium chinense):
Wormwood (Artemisia apiacea):
medicinal herb useful against fevers and malaria. It
inhibits the maturation of malaria parasites in the body.
Known for its cooling effect and its ability to clear
toxins from the system. Powerful antibiotic, and stops
bleeding especially nose bleeds. The plant can be used
interchangeably with Artemisia
Chinese Yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia):
Chiretta (Swertia chirata):
Used in India for intermittent fevers, in
a similar manner as golden seal. The fruits of
Berberis aristata are given as a cooling laxative
to children. The stem is said to be diaphoretic and
laxative and useful in rheumatism. The dried extract of
the roots is used as an application in ophthalmia. It is
also an excellent medication in the case of
sun-blindness. The bark of its root is a valuable
medicine in intermittent and remittent fevers. The root
is one of the few really good medicines in India. In its
efficacy, it is almost equal to quinine and Warburg's
tincture. It does not produce any bad effects on the
stomach, the bowels, the brain and the organs of
hearing. A very valuable preparation called rasaut
is prepared from this plant. For preparing rasaut,
the bark of the root and of the lower part of the stem
is boiled in water, strained and evaporated till a
semi-solid mass (rasaut) is obtained. Rasaut
is fairly soluble in water. It is mixed with butter and
alum, or with opium and lime-juice and is applied
externally to the eyelids to cure ophthalmia and other
eye diseases. It is also reported to be a mild laxative,
a tonic and is useful in curing ulcers and fevers.
It was observed that, in the dose range of
1-3 mg. berberine neutralized, in vitro, the
anticoagulant action of 50 I.U. heparin per ml of blood
and had no effect on blood samples rendered incoagulable
by potassium oxalate, sodium citrate and EDTA.
Parodoxically, large dose (10mg/ml) of berberine itself
produced anticoagulant effect. These effects resembled
those produced by protamine sulphate and toluidine blue.
Berberine protected 50 -75 per cent chick
embryos from the lethal effect of trachoma organisms
inoculated into the yolk sac. It also completely
inhibited development of the elementary bodies on the
yold sac membrane. In control experiments, 1 mg. per egg
dose of sulphadiazine produced similar effect. Further,
berberine was found encouragingly effective in
controlling experimentally - induced trachoma in monkey
Chives (Allium schoenoprasum): : Chives has been used as a
vermifuge. Used as an
antiseptic, diuretic and a
stimulant. The oil in chives is used in medicines to help reduce blood
pressure. Suggested in
the Orient as a cold, flu and lung congestion remedy.
fragile): In China, used to clear away heat and
toxic materials, reduce tumescence and nourish dampness
and driving bug. For edema, difficulty of pisses,
driving lumbricoid and drink.
Chou Wu Tong (Clerodendrum trichotomum):
Chuan Bei Mu (Fritillaria
cirrhosa): The bulbs contain fritimine which
lowers blood pressure, diminishes excitability of
respiratory centers, paralyses voluntary movement
and counters the effects of opium. The dried bulb is
used internally in the treatment of coughs,
bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma, feverish illnesses,
abscesses etc. The bulbs also have a folk history of
use against cancer of the breast and lungs in China.
This remedy should only be used under the
supervision of a qualified practitioner, excessive
doses can cause breathing difficulties and heart
failure. The Kameng and Lohit peoples in Arunachal
Pradesh crush a bulk of Fritillaria cirrhosa to a
paste to relieve muscle pains. Research has now
confirmed the presence of a chemical similar to
cocaine in a related Fritillaria plant that brings
relief to muscular pain.
Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum): Chinese
Medicine: Disperses wind and clears heat: for wind-heat patterns with
fever and headache; Clears the Liver and the eyes: for either
wind-heat in the Liver channel manifested in red, painful, dry eyes or
excessive tearing, or yin deficiency of the Kidneys and Liver with
such symptoms as spots in front of the eyes, blurry vision, or
dizziness; Calms the Liver and extinguishes wind: for such symptoms as
dizziness, headache, and deafness due to ascendant Liver yang.
The ability of white chrysanthemum to nourish the Liver and
clear the eyes is somewhat superior to the other varieties.
It is also known as sweet chrysanthemum (gan ju hua). This
variety is often used for diminished vision due to Liver and Kidney
yin deficiency. Yellow
chrysanthemum (huang ju hua) has a greater wind-heat dispersing
capacity than do the other varieties.
It is most often used in treating eye redness and headache due
to externally-contracted wind-heat.
Research has demonstrated that it is a valuable remedy for high
Niu Xi (Cyathula
are mainly used for pain associated with menstruation.
Increasingly used more generally for abdominal blood
stasis. Other uses are to treat rheumatism, arthritis,
and skin infection
Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum): : Coriander seeds are used in many
medicines to improve taste especially bitter laxatives.
They aid digestion, reduce gas and improve the appetite.
Previously coriander water was used to relieve colic.
The Chinese use coriander tea to counter dysentery and measles.
East Indians make the seeds into an eyewash to prevent
blindness in smallpox patients. The
oil is an antiseptic and was suggested by Dioscorides to great urinary
tract restrictions and inflammations.
Add the essential oil to ointments for painful rheumatic joints
indigenous people of Peru have taken cinchona for many
centuries, and it is still a well-used remedy for
fevers, digestive problems, and infections.
Cinchona, and in particular quinine, were the
principal remedies for malaria until World War I.
From the 1960s on, resistance of the malarial
parasite to the synthetic drug chloroquine led to
quinine’s use once again in preventing and treating
is also used to treat other acute feverish conditions.
As a bitter tonic, cinchona stimulates saliva,
digestive secretions, and the appetite, and improves
weak digestive functions.
It is useful as a gargle for sore, infected
throats. The herb is used in herbal medicine for cramps, especially
night cramps. It
also relieves arthritis.
In India, cinchona is used to treat sciatica and
dysentery, as well as problems associated with an
imbalance in kapha.
Edgar Cayce primarily recommended calisaya as
a blood purifier and aid to digestion.
There is also a distinct action of quieting the
heart, reducing palpitations and normalizing the
Cinchona has been thoroughly researched, and its
pharmacological actions are well established.
Quinine is both strongly antimalarial and
the other alkaloids, it is antispasmodic.
The bitter constituents in cinchona, including
the alkaloids and quinovin, produce a reflex stimulation
of the digestion as a whole, increasing stomach
is known to reduce heart rate and improve irregularity
Cinnamon: (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): : It was one of the ingredients in ivory jelly, which was
made from powdered ivory and given at one time to consumptives.
It raises vitality, warms and stimulates all the vital
functions of the body, counteracts congestion, is antirheumatic, stops
diarrhea, improves digestion, relieves abdominal spasms, aids the
peripheral circulation of the blood.
Cinnamon is the second most widely used warming stimulant in
Chinese medicine, used by Chinese herbalists much as Western
herbalists have used cayenne. In
India, it is taken after childbirth as a contraceptive.
It has a slight emmenagogic action—stimulating the uterus and
encouraging menstrual bleeding. Japanese
research in the 1980s showed that cinnamaldehyde was sedative and
analgesic. It is also
thought to reduce blood pressure and fevers.
German study showed cinnamon suppresses completely the cause of most
urinary tract infections and the fungus responsible for vaginal yeast
infections.. It helps
break down fats in your digestive system, possibly by boosting the
activity of some digestive enzymes.
You can dust a bit of cinnamon on cuts and scrapes (it contains
eugenol) which helps relieve the pain of household mishaps.
Fern (Osmunda cinnamonea):
reptans and P. canadensis) The
outer bark of the root has been used as a remedy for
diarrhea and internal hemorrhages.
The powder also makes an astringent for mouth
sores and relieves diarrhea.
Taken with honey, it relieves sore throats,
coughs and fever. A decoction made by boiling 1 ½
ounces of root in a quart of water until the liquid is
reduced to one pint, or an infusion of one ounce of
the dried leafy tops, steeped for 10 or 15 minutes in
a pint of water, are both suggested in old herbals.
Clammy Groundcherry (Physalis
The seed is considered to be
beneficial in the treatment of difficult urination,
fever, inflammation and various urinary disorders. A tea
made from the leaves is used in the treatment of
headaches and as a wash for burns and scalds. A poultice
of the leaves and roots is applied to wounds. An
infusion of the leaves and roots is used as a wash on
scalds, burns and VD sores. Compounds in the plant are
being investigated for antitumor activity.
Clary Sage (Salvia sclaria) Like its relative sage, clary tea, the leaf
juice in ale or beer, was recommended for many types of women’s
problems, including delayed or painful menstruation.
It was once used to stop night sweating in tuberculosis
patients. An astringent
is gargled, douched and poured over skin wounds.
It is combined with other herbs for kidney problems.
The clary seeds form a thick mucilage when soaked for a few
minutes and placed in the eye, helps to removed, small irritating
particles. A tea of the
leaves is also used as an eyewash.
Clary is also used to reduce muscle spasms.
It is used
today mainly to treat digestive problems such as gas and indigestion. It is also regarded as a tonic, calming herb that helps
relieve premenstrual problems. Because
of its estrogen-stimulating action, clary sage is most effective when
levels of this hormone are low. The
plant can therefore be a valuable remedy for complaints associated
with menopause, particularly hot flashes.
anisata): The pounded roots, with lime and
Guinea grains, are applied to rheumatic and other pains
in Nigeria, where also the leaves are considered
anthelmintic. In some parts of Africa it is considered
a cough remedy. Recent research has shown the root
methanolic extract indicates that the herb possesses
hypoglycaemic activity, though not as strong as insulin;
and thus lends credence to the suggested folkloric use
of C. anisata root in the management and/or control of
adult-onset, Type-2 diabetes mellitus in some
communities of South Africa.
Cleavers (Galium aparine):
valuable tonic to the lymphatic system. It would be used in swollen glands anywhere in the body and
especially in tonsillitis and in adenoid trouble. It eliminates excess fluid, counteracts inflammations, and
urinary infections, hepatitis and venereal disease. In the East Indies, the juice of the herb taken in
teaspoonful doses is considered a very effective treatment for
gonorrhea. It is a blood
purifier as well as an effective diuretic.
Thus it is excellent for inflammations, both taken internally
and applied topically in the form of a poultice.
It has a good reputation as an external application for
cancerous growths and tumors. A
decoction sponged on the face with a soft cloth is useful for sunburn
and freckles A tea is
considered excellent for the treatment of psoriasis.
According to French research in 1947, an extract of the plant
appears to lower blood pressure.
Clematis, Purple (Clematis
poultice of the pounded, dampened leaves of blue
clematis has been applied by the Okanagan-Colville
Indians to the feet to treat sweaty feet. They also made
a tea of leaves alone or the stems and leaves and used
it as a hair wash to prevent gray hair. The Navajo
Indians used a cold tea of the plant as a lotion on
swollen knees and ankles. The Thompson Indians used the
plant as a head wash and to treat scabs and eczema.
Most effective when taken at early onset of
migraines. Also for cluster and general headaches.
Blackfoot used boiled leaves applied to skin
where ‘ghost bullets' had been removed by shaman; smudge
from stem used to revive people who had fainted from
being near 'ghosts'; infusion of plant given to horses
as a diuretic. The Flathead used a decoction of entire
plant used as wash for sores and itches, or boiled plant
rubbed on affected areas; decoction of stem and leaves
used as hair restorer or shampoo, sometimes combined
with Pterospora andromedea. Kootenay-infusion
used as hair wash, believed to make the hair grow
longer. Montana Indians used a decoction of leaves as a
headache remedy; root used as a stimulant to revive
fallen race horses. Okanagan used the leaves and branch
mashed and steeped or boiled in water to make a hair
wash, said to prevent gray hair; if used every day for a
month, said to kill 'germs' in hair roots. Stoney used
a wash from stems used as eye wash; feathery achenes
used as swabs to stop bleeding. Thompson used a
decoction of plant used as wash for head and neck scabs.
Sage (Salvia clevelandii):
Climbing Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens):
Climbing bittersweet was employed medicinally by a
number of native North American Indian tribes, though it
is scarcely used in modern herbalism. The root is a folk
remedy for chronic liver and skin ailments, rheumatism,
leukorrhea, dysentery and suppressed menses. A strong
compound infusion, usually combined with raspberry leaf
tea, has been used to reduce the pain of childbirth. A
poultice of the boiled root has been used to treat
obstinate sores, skin eruptions etc. Externally, the bark
is used as an ointment on burns, scrapes and skin
eruptions. The bark of the root has been taken internally
to induce vomiting, to quiet disturbed people, to treat
venereal diseases and to increase urine flow. As an
ointment mixed with grease it has been used to treat skin
cancers, tumors, burns and swellings. A decoction of the
root bark has been used to induce menstrual flow and
perspiration. Extracts of the bark are thought to be
cardioactive. Many plants in this genus contain compounds
of interest for their antitumor activity.
Climbing Hydrangea (Schizophragma integrifolium):
The root and the climbing stem are carminative and
refrigerant. Activates blood circulation, strengthens
muscles and bones.
hybridum): A cold infusion of the plant has been
used as a wash on the breasts of a nursing mother in
order to increase the milk flow.
Clover, Crimson (Trifolium
incarnatum): Leaves are made into a strong
infusion to suspend the spasms of whooping cough or into
a salve for indolent sores.
Clover, Suckling (Trifolium
A poultice of the chopped
plant has been applied to cuts to stop the bleeding..
Clover, Tick (Desmodium
triflorum): Whole plant used to treat dysentery
Clover, Velvet Prairie (Dalea
one of the favored plants of the Native Americans of the
prairies. A tea made from the leaves was applied to open
wounds and a tea made from the bruised leaves steeped in
hot water was used to aid in the healing of wounds as
well. Some tribes pulverized the root and made a tea
from that powder that was a very healthy drink and a
preventative medicine. Some tribes used the entire plant
as a prophylactic. Early settlers mixed the bark of the
white oak tree and the flowers of this species to make a
medicine for diarrhea. The
Chippewa Indians made a decoction of the leaves and
blossoms to be used in the treatment of heart problems.
The Meskwaki Indians used it to treat diarrhea, and they
also made an infusion of the roots in the treatment of
measles. The Navajo used the plant to treat pneumonia.
Clover, White (Trifolium
repens): The flower heads are the medicinally
active parts. When dry they have a honey-like fragrance
and a slightly astringent taste. An infusion is used to
treat gastritis, enteritis, severe diarrhea and
rheumatic pains. It is also used as an inhalant for
respiratory infections. Herbal doctors still employ
preparations of white clover to ward off mumps.
An old fashioned remedy to
cleanse the system. A blood purifier, especially in
boils, ulcers and other skin diseases. A strong tea of
white clover blossoms is very healing to sores when
applied externally. Similar to red clover in use.
An infusion has been used in the treatment of
coughs, colds, fevers and leucorrhea. A tincture of the
leaves is applied as an ointment to gout. An infusion of
the flowers has been used as an eyewash.
Cloves (Syzigium aromaticum or Eugenia
Traditional Chinese physicians have long used the herb to treat
indigestion, diarrhea, hernia, and ringworm, as well as athlete’s
foot and other fungal infections.
India’s traditional Ayurvedic healers have used clove since
ancient times to treat respiratory and digestive ailments.
America’s 19th century Eclectic physicians used
clove to treat digestive complaints and added it to bitter
herb-medicine preparations to make them more palatable.
The Eclectics were also the first to extract clove oil from the
has antiseptic, stimulant, stomachic and digestive properties.
As an anti-infectant, cloves are effective against coli
bacilli, streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci and as an
antimycotic. The oil,
too, is used in dentistry for its antiseptic and analgesic properties,
and, like the whole cloves and powdered cloves, for local
pain-relieving purposes. Eugenol
is a local anesthetic used in dental fillings and cements; a
rubifacient and a carminative. It
is also an irritant and an allergic sensitizer.
Besides all their other uses, cloves can be used to treat acne,
skin ulcers, sores, and styes. They
also make a potent mosquito and moth repellent which is where the
clove studded orange pomander comes from.
Coastal Wallflower (Erysimum
preventative against sun burn, the plant was ground up
then mixed with water and applied to the skin. It relieves
the pain caused by overexposure to heat. A poultice of
the whole pounded plant has been applied to open fresh
wounds and rheumatic joints. An infusion of the whole
plant has been used as a wash on aching muscles. The
crushed leaves have been sniffed as a treatment for
headaches. A poultice of the warmed root has been applied
to treat the pain of toothache. An infusion of the
crushed seed has been drunk and used externally in the
treatment of stomach or bowel cramps. For chest pains or
pneumonia, as a tea; or powdered, mixed with Osha and
water and applied to the chest as a poultice. It is
sometimes used as a preventative in households where some
members have coughs; for chills from exposure to cold
weather; and at the onset of cold symptoms
Chewed with a pinch of lime,
the leaf releases a mild dose of cocaine alkaloid which
numbs sensory nerves, dulls hunger and pain and even
provides vitamins otherwise absent in the starch-heavy
diet of the highland Indian. When this active alkaloid
is isolated and refined, Cocaine is produced, a drug
with an unequalled power to stimulate the pleasure
centers of the human brain.
Some physicians question the classification of
cocaine as a narcotic, because it has exactly opposite
characteristics of opium. Cocaine produces intense
euphoria and short-term hallucinations; there is
apparently no true physical addiction or physical
withdrawal symptoms from the milder, standard cocaine,
although persons are psychologically addicted and have
intense cravings for the drug. However, the
reintroduction of Crack (quicklime added, as in ancient
times), was very dangerous and physically addictive.
Cocaine is snorted or sniffed generally through the nose
and is absorbed through the nasal epithelium. This ruins
nasal tissues and causes increases in heart rate and
blood pressure as well as a rise in body temperature.
Several synthetic cocaine-like substances are used in
medicine and dentistry, including procaine or Novocaine
Modern medicine has used cocaine to treat
eczema, shingles (herpes zoster) and has been found to
be an effective bactericide against Gram-negative
bacteria and coccus bacteria. It was used as a topical
anesthetic and a spinal anesthetic, but has been
replaced by synthetic forms such as procaine. Modern
herbalists have many uses for coca leaves. Some of the
uses include: relieving altitude illness (hypoxia),
treating gastrointestinal disorders, relieving the
discomfort of colds, bruises, sore joint and muscles,
swollen and sore feet and headaches.
Externally used in preparations for eczema,
nettle rash, hemorrhoids, facial neuralgia, and as a
local anesthetic in surgery. Combined with morphone, as
a “Bropton cocktail” to relieve pain in the terminally
ill. Effectively used for defective innervation with
dizziness, impaired digestion, occipital and
post-cervical pain, and inability to stand for a length
of time; migraine; fatigue; weariness and mental and
physical exhaustion; labored and difficult breathing,
with normal temperature; inordinate hunger and thirst.
Cocculus (Anamirta cocculus):
strumarium): Cocklebur fruits are used to treat
arthritis and rheumatism, to open the nasal passages and
sinuses, for allergic rhinitis with headache, chronic
lumbago, leprosy and pruritis (severe itching) of the
skin. Three or four pods boiled in water will stop the
most obstinate diarrhea. A teaspoon of the crushed pods
boiled for five minutes has analgesic, diuretic, and
antispasmodic effects. This herb is very obnoxious in its
natural state, as the seed pods tend to adhere to animal
fur and human clothing. It is, however, a very valuable
therapeutic agent widely used by the Chinese for rheumatic
aches and pains as well as sinus blockage. Extracts of
the plant have been shown to control tumor growth in
laboratory animals. The stem and leaves used to treat
German measles. A tea of the leaves is a useful diuretic
and is especially useful for chronic cystitis; a rounded
teaspoon of the chopped leaves in tea, morning and
afternoon. A tincture of the crushed seeds is both
clotting and antiseptic for skin abrasions, and is a good
first aid dressing.
Cock's Foot (Dactylis glomerata):
Reported to be estrogenic. The plant is a folk remedy
for treating tumors, kidney and bladder ailments
cornigera): Root and bark are used in snakebite
remedy. Bushmasters instruct that the snakebite victim
should cut a piece of the bark equal to his forearm and
chew this, swallowing the juices, and applying the
leftover fibers as a poultice to the bite; the victim can
then start walking home while chewing on the root and
swallowing the juice. The poultice is said to delay
reaction time to the toxin, adding 6-8 hours of time to
allow victim to get help. It has been used as traditional
medicine for relief of mucous congestion for infants.
Babies are given water containing the ants (once they've
been squeezed and strained). Acne and other skin
conditions can be bathed with water in which the thorns
have been boiled. For male impotency, boil a 2.5 x 15 cm
strip of bark in 3 cups water for 10 minutes and take 1
cup before meals for 7 days. If results are slow, double
the strength of the tea for 3 more days. For infantile
catarrh, catch 9 of the small black ants that inhabit the
thorns (they protect the tree from attack from harmful
insects); squeeze these into ½ cup boiled water, strain
and give to infant by teaspoon until consumed. For onset
of asthma attacks, cough, and lung congestion, boil 9
thorns (including their ants) in 3 cups of water for 10
minutes. Said to be useful also for treatment of
poisoning and headaches.
cacao): Although cacao is most often used as a
food, it also has therapeutic value as a nervous system stimulant.
In Central America and the Caribbean, the seeds are taken as a
heart and kidney tonic. The
plant may be used to treat angina and as a diuretic.
Cacao butter makes a good lip salve, and is often used as a
base for suppositories. In
1994, Argentinian researchers showed that cacao extracts counter the
bacteria responsible for boils and septicemia.
Chocolate naturally contains a drug substance, theobromine,
which is chemically similar to caffeine, and has a similar mild habit
forming, stimulating effect on humans.
Its action on muscle, the kidneys and the heart is more
pronounced. It is used
principally for its diuretic effect due to stimulation of the renal
epithelium; it is especially useful when there is an accumulation of
fluid in the body resulting from cardiac failure, when it is often
given with digitalis to relieve dilatation.
It is also employed in high blood pressure, as it dilates the
people are "addicted" to this drug and humorously refer to
themselves as "chocoholics". Although chocolate is as mildly
addicting as is coffee and other caffeine containing drinks, its
effect is relatively innocuous.
Central Americans have used cocoa for centuries to treat fever, coughs
and complaints of pregnancy and childbirth.
They have also rubbed cocoa butter on burns, chapped lips,
balding heads and the sore nipples of nursing mothers.
The Eclectics recommended cocoa butter externally as a wound
dressing and salve. For
internal use, they prescribed hot cocoa for asthma and as a nutritive
for invalids and persons convalescing from acute illness.
There is no evidence that chocolate causes acne, kidney stones, or
infant colic. However,
chocolate does contain chemicals (tyramines) that trigger headaches in
some people, particularly those prone to migraines.
Many people find a cup of hot chocolate soothes their stomachs
after meals. The problem is that cocoa and chocolate may cause heartburn.
The herb relaxes the valve between the stomach and the
Coconut (Cocos nucifera):
and Codonopsis tangshen
has a central place in Chinese herbal medicine as a
gentle tonic that increase energy levels and helps the
body adapt to stress for both sexes.
Research has confirmed this use. Codonopsis is
thought to be similar in action to ginseng, but it is
milder and has a shorter-lasting effect.
It is given to those who find ginseng too strong
a tonic and is used interchangeably with ginseng in
Chinese herbal formulas.
In Chinese herbal medicine, codonopsis is
considered to tone the qui, lungs, and spleen.
It improves vitality and helps to balance
It is a gentle tonic remedy that helps to revive
the system as a whole.
Codonopsis is taken in particular for tired
limbs, general fatigue, and for digestive problems such
as appetite loss, vomiting, and diarrhea.
It is thought to nourish the yin of the stomach
without making it too “wet,” and at the same time to
tone the spleen without making it too “dry.” It is beneficial in any chronic illness where “spleen qi
deficiency” is a contributory factor.
Codonopsis is given as a tonic to people who are
stressed and have “false-fire” symptoms, including
tense neck muscles, headaches, irritability, and high
blood pressure, and who find the tonic action of ginseng
too strong. Codonopsis
is reputedly more successful in reducing levels of
adrenaline, and therefore stress, than ginseng.
The herb is taken regularly by nursing mothers in
China to increase milk production and as a tonic to
“build strong blood.”
Codonopsis clears excessive mucus from the lungs
and is useful for respiratory problems, including
shortness of breath and asthma
Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that
codonopsis increases hemoglobin and red blood cell
levels, and lowers blood pressure.
Other research has confirmed the ability of
codonopsis to help increase endurance to stress and to
maintain alertness. Source:
Coffee (Coffea arabica):
Berry (Rhamnus californica):
Kola nut stimulates the
central nervous system and the body as a whole. It increases alertness and muscular strength, counters
lethargy, and has been used extensively both in
western African and Anglo-American herbal medicine as
an antidepressant, particularly during recovery from
Like coffee, kola is used to treat headaches
and migraine. It
is diuretic and astringent and may be taken for
diarrhea and dysentery.
It will aid in states of depression and may in
some people give rise to euphoric states.
Through the stimulation it will be a valuable
part of the treatment for anorexia.
It can be viewed as specific in cases of
depression associated with weakness and debility.
Coleus contains forskolin. That constituent was researched by an
Indian/German company and shown to be a powerful medicine for heart
failure, glaucoma, and bronchial asthma. Forskolin lowers high blood
pressure, relaxes smooth muscle, increases the release of hormones
from the thyroid gland, stimulates digestive secretion, and reduces
pressure within the eye. Coleus has been prescribed to treat
congestive heart failure and poor coronary blood flow. It also
improves circulation of blood to the brain. (Take only under
professional supervision.) Forskolin reduces preload and afterload of
the heart due to its vasodilating action and augments myocardial
contractility due to its positive inotropic action without affecting
myocardial oxygen consumption. Forskolin relaxed contracted airways in-vitro
and prevented methacholine and acetylcholine induced
bronchoconstriction in asthmatics and healthy subjects respectively.
Colombo (Cocculus palmatus):
Colorado Four-O'Clock (Mirabilis multiflora)
Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara): : Coltsfoot leaves have long been
recommended for lung problems such as laryngitis, bronchitis and
asthma and to control spastic coughing.
Both Ayurvedic and Chinese physicians have prescribed it for
similar problems. It is a
soothing expectorant and the flavonoids it contains reduce
inflammation, especially in the bronchials.
It is also applied as a poultice to
sores and ulcerations and as a cream for cold sores.
It can also be inhaled or smoked on its own as a remedy for
asthma, bronchitis and various congestions of the lungs. It may also
be taken as a strong tea mixture or as an infusion for the above
conditions. Soluble in
both water and diluted alcohol.
German study showed the herb increases the activity of the microscopic
hairs in the breathing tubes that move mucus out of the respiratory
tract. Another experiment
shows that the herb suppresses a substance (platelet activating factor
or PAF) in the body that is involved in triggering asthma attacks.
Coltsfoot, Sweet (Petasites
Coltsfoot has been widely used as a medicine over the
years. It was once the official sign of the French
apothecaries. Some native groups chewed the roots or
made them into a tea to treat chest ailments
(tuberculosis and asthma), rheumatism, sore throats, and
stomach ulcers. Coltsfoot leaves and flowers were
steeped in hot water to make a tea for people suffering
from diarrhea. The white roots of this plant are
boiled to provide a liquid which cures the itch. The
roots are demulcent and slightly tonic. It is used in
bronchitis and pulmonary troubles. The pulverized root
is smoked in Germany and Sweden to cure a cough. The
roots have been used in treating the first stages of
grippe and consumption. The dried and grated roots have
been applied as a dressing on boils, swellings and
running sores. An infusion of the crushed roots has been
used as a wash for sore eyes. A syrup for treating
coughs and lung complaints has been made from the roots
of this species combined with mullein (Verbascum sp.)
and plum root (Prunus sp.).
Comfrey (Symphytum officinale):
Comfrey leaves and especially the root contain allantoin, a cell
proliferant that increases the healing of wounds.
It also stops bleeding, is soothing, and is certainly the most
popular ingredient in herbal skin sales for wounds, inflammation,
rashes, varicose veins, hemorrhoids and just about any skin problem.
Taken internally, comfrey repairs the digestive tract lining,
helping to heal peptic and duodenal ulcers and colitis.
Studies show it inhibits prostaglandins, which cause
inflammation of the stomach lining.
Comfrey has been used to treat a variety of respiratory
diseases and is a specific when these involve coughing of blood.
In cases of bleeding of the lungs, stomach or bowels the leaves
or root should be made into a strong decoction, or a strong infusion
of the leaves and regular hourly or two hourly drinks taken until the
bleeding ceases. The root
is stronger and more effective than the leaves.
In the case of bleeding piles the addition of distilled extract
of Witch Hazel to the infusion or decoction will increase the
effectiveness. To aid in the cure of mucous colitis mix equal parts of
comfrey leaves, agrimony herb, cranesbill herb and marshmallow herb,
use one ounce of the mixed herbs, make an infu9sion and take
a wineglassful at least three times daily.
The leaves moisten
the lungs, help dissolve and expel mucus, soothe the throat, lowers
fever, relieves cough and treat asthma. It is applied externally
as a poultice and taken internally to promote healing of injured
tissues and bones. The root is used to treat chronic lung
diseases with dry cough and inflammation, sore throat, pulmonary
catarrh, stomach ulcers, and wasting diseases. It is excellent
both internally and externally for promoting the healing of sores,
bones, muscles and other tissues, and is as powerful as some of the
best Oriental tonic herbs. Concurrent internal and external
application has the most favorable effect on the healing process.
roasted leaves and stalks have been used in China for
the treatment of the opium habit but its action is
Common Box (Buxus
Common Burdock (Arctium
Common Buttonbush (Cephalanthus
Common Catalpa (Catalpa
Common Groundsel (Senecio
Common Skullcap (Scutellaria
Common Mallow: (Malva sylvestris): : Though less useful than marsh mallow, common mallow is an effective
demulcent. The flowers
and leaves are emollient and good for sensitive areas of the skin. Mallow is beneficial in the treatment of painful swellings
and is used as a digestive and diuretic herb, as well as in the making
of an external lotion for acne. The
leaves have the reputation of easing the pain of a wasp sting if
rubbed on the affected area. A
certain cure for a cold was believed to be bathing the feet in a
decoction of the leaves, flowers and roots. Taken internally, the
leaves reduce gut irritation, aids recovery from gastritis and stomach
ulcers, laryngitis and pharyngitis, upper respiratory catarrh and
bronchitis and have a laxative effect. When common mallow is combined with eucalyptus, it makes a
good remedy for coughs and other chest ailments.
As with marsh mallow, the root may be given to children to ease
teething. The fresh dried
leaves are put into decoctions; the root may be dried, but it is best
fresh, if chosen when there are leaves growing from it.
Compass Plant (Silphium laciniatum):
bitter may be used in a whole range of digestive and
It will relax the nerves of the stomach, making
it of use in the settling of indigestion where this is
affected by nervous tension and anxiety.
Often used in South American folk medicine as a
bitter and digestive tonic, it is a specific treatment
for nervous indigestion and anorexia nervosa.
Its bitterness slowly increases the appetite,
as well as the stomach’s ability to process
increased quantities of food.
The herb is also thought to stimulate the liver
and pancreas, and may be taken for liver disorders.
It also encourages menstruation.
The caustic white latex is applied to remove
Condurangogenins in condurango may prove
beneficial in countering tumors.
The whole plant, however, does not seem to
significantly alter cancer development.
Coneflower (Rudbeckia hirta):
Consumption Brake (Botrychium lunaria):
Contrayerva (Dorstenia contrayerva):
grandiflora): It has a number of reported uses
in Central America. Contribo can often be seen soaking
in a bottle of rum at saloons, since it is taken by the
shot for everything from hangovers and flu to amoebas,
flatulence, late menstrual periods, and irregular
heartbeat. The crushed leaves are sometimes applied as
a plaster for skin diseases, as a poultice for
snakebite, and as an emmenagogue and treatment for
Coolwort (Mitella diphylla):
stayed in the bush for months relied on fresh copal
resin to treat painful cavities, a piece of resin was
stuffed into the cavity and, in a few days, the tooth
broke apart and was easily expelled. The bark is
scraped, powdered, and applied to wounds, sores, and
infections. Cut a piece of bark 2.5 cm x 15 cm; boil in
3 cups of water for 10 minutes and drink 1 cup before
meals for stomach complaints and intestinal parasites.
It is also used as a remedy for fright and dizziness.
For nausea and
vomiting; with fever and great weakness; for water
retention and kidney weakness that accompanies lingering
illnesses. It is sometimes used to treat diabetes but
it probably inadvisable to use it for this purpose.
The bark is used as a
febrifuge and anti-malarial remedy in many parts of
Mexico; the bark is harvested from the Alamos region,
made into capsules in Navojoa and sold commercially, and
it is like-wise harvested in many other parts of Mexico.
Known as “Amargo” because of the bitter flavor, the tea
is drunk as a purgative for intestinal parasites, as an
energy tonic, and to “restore the blood”, and reduce
fevers. This tea is often used when the seasons change
from hot to cool weather. The bark is made into a wash
to lower fevers. The bark is also added to Suwí-ki as a
fermentation catalyst. Bark is utilized to reduce
fevers, malaria, gastro-intestinal problems, blood
purifier. For bile, the bark is boiled and the tea is
drunk for diabetes, water is boiled and a piece of bark
Coppereleaf (Acalypha indica):
Coralbead (Erythrina herbacea):
Corn (Zea mays):
Chamomile (Anthemis arvensis): Employed in fevers,
colds, and to produce perspiration. This species is
considered to be one of the best febrifuge species
indigenous to France. The flowers and leaves are used.
githago): The seed is diuretic, expectorant and
vermifuge. Minute amounts are used medicinally. It has
a folk history of use in the external treatment of
cancer, warts etc. The plant is not used in allopathic
medicine, but it has been found efficacious in the
treatment of dropsy and jaundice if used for long
Marigold (Chrysanthemum segetum)
Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus
) Cornflower is still used in French
herbal medicine as a remedy for the eyes. The strained infusion is used as an eyewash, and the petals
applied as a poultice. But opinions differ as to its
petals are also taken as a bitter tonic and stimulant,
improving digestion and possibly supporting the liver
as well as improving resistance to infection.
A tea made from the petals is used in diseases
of the urinary tract.
The seeds have been used as a mild laxative for
children. A decoction of the leaves is used to treat
(previous C. majus and Tanacetum balsamita):
Rarely used today, but was included in the British
Pharmacopoeia until 1788 for its use treating dysentery and other
digestive problems. Early
writers suggested the leaves to relieve headaches and gout pain, to
increase menstruation, and as a diuretic.
It was also used for conditions of “excessive coldness.”
Costmary is slightly astringent and antiseptic on wounds and
burns and was also used with other herbs in ointments for dry, itch
skin and skin parasites. Infuse
the leaf as a tonic tea for colds, catarrh, upset stomachs and cramps,
and to ease childbirth. Add
to a salve for burns and stings.
It was at one time employed medicinally in this country, having
somewhat astringent and antiseptic properties, and had a place in our
Pharmacopceia until 1788, chiefly as an aperient, its use in dysentery
being especially indicated. An
ointment made by boiling the herb in olive oil with Adder's Tongue and
thickening the strained liquid with wax and resin and turpentine was
considered to be very valuable for application to sores and ulcers.
Costus (Saussurea lappa (S. costus):
Kuth is used in the Ayurvedic and Unani Tibb traditions in India for
its tonic, stimulant, and antiseptic properties.
The root is commonly taken, with other herbs, for respiratory
system problems such as bronchitis, asthma, and coughs. It is also used to treat cholera.
coto). It may be given in ten drop doses of the
fluid extract, repeated according to the urgency of the
case. Formerly used for catarrh,
diarrhea and dysentery, as a decoction. It has a
specific effect on the alimentary canal but is not a
suitable remedy where inflammation exists or is
threatened, but rather should be employed in relaxed
states, and where some poisonous element has been taken
into the system in the food or drinking water. It is
antiseptic or promotes asepsis. . It is one of the most
efficient remedies in the exhaustive sweats of
Cotton Grass (Eriophorum
Cotton Lavender (Santolina
The bark of
older trees is boiled and drunk warm to depress fevers,
to treat arthritis during acute episodes, and to cure
diarrhea. Ashes of the burned bark are mixed with corn
meal and enough hot water to form a poultice that is
applied to boils and abcesses. The spring leaf buds are
soaked for a week in 2 or 3 times their volume of corn
or olive oil to make an oil to treat cracked skin and
burns from heat, friction, and wind. A tea brewed from
the dried leaves is a diuretic and also lessens the pain
of difficult urination.
(Agropyron repens (Elymus repens)
) A gentle, effective diuretic and demulcent,
couchgrass is used for urinary infections, including
cystitis, nephritis and urethritis.
It also is useful for urinary calculi, gall
stones and jaundice, as well as gout and rheumatic
complaints. It is a soothing herb that improves
excretion from kidneys and bowels, lowers blood
cholesterol levels and even clears infection.
It both protects the urinary tubules against
infection and irritants and increases the volume of
urine, thereby diluting it.
It can be taken, usually with other herbs, to
help treat kidney stones, reducing the irritation and
laceration they cause.
Couch grass is also thought to dissolve kidney
stones as far as possible, and in any case will help
to prevent their further enlargement. In
German herbal medicine, heated couch grass seeds are
used in a hot and moist pack that is applied to the
abdomen to sooth peptic ulcers.
Juice from the roots of couch grass has been
used to treat jaundice and other liver complaints.
The herb is used in various tea mixtures to
stimulate the metabolism and harmonize its processes.
Extracts of couch grass have exhibited antibiotic
effects on a variety of bacteria and molds.
Mallow (Sida cordifolia): Roots, leaves, seeds and stems all used with each part
having a different therapeutic value and must be prepared in its own
way for the maximum benefits. Sida cordifolia has been used for over 2,000 years
to treat bronchial asthma cold & flu, chills, lack of
perspiration, headache, nasal congestion, aching joints and bones,
cough & wheezing, and edema. In Western terms, Sida cordifolia is
considered to have diaphoretic, diuretic, central nervous system
stimulating and anti-asthmatic activity. The stem of this plant
contains a number of active compounds, including small amounts of an
essential oil, and most important, 1-2% alkaloids composed mainly of
ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, with ephedrine ranging from 30-90%,
depending on the source.
decoction of the root with ginger is given by Ayurvedic physicians in
intermittent fever. It is also administered in fever accompanied by
rigour. The powdered root bark is administered with milk and sugar as
treatment for urinary urgency and leucorrhoea. The seeds are used to
treat urinary infections. They are also believed to be aphrodisiac. The rejuvenating actions of this herb extend to the
nervous, circulatory, urinary and reproductive systems. It is helpful
in all types of nervous system disorders including: paralysis,
insanity, hemiplegia, stiff neck, tinnitis, headache, sciatica,
inflammation of nerves, and neuralgia. Bala has the chemical
characteristics of Ephedrine and is therefore a cardiac stimulant and
is useful in certain types of heart disease.
Bala has a diuretic effect and is useful in urinary problems
including cystitis. Being cooling and astringent, it is used for
inflammations and bleeding disorders. It may be used for bleeding
hemorrhoids, hematuria, chronic dysentery, chronic fevers, and healing
of wounds. Bala is very effective used topically as a medicated oil.
sylvestris): The root is soaked for several days
in rice washings and then cooked with other foods as a
tonic for general weakness.
Vine (Bauhinia herrerae): The stem is used as
an astringent to staunch diarrhea and bleeding, to
reduce hemorrhage, and to wash wounds. Boil a handful
of chopped vine in 3 cups of water for 10 minutes; allow
to cool and drink ½ cup 6 times daily for headaches,
internal wounds, and bleeding, or 2 cups in ½ hour for
hemorrhage. Use this same decoction to wash bleeding or
infected wounds. For headaches, mash a handful of
leaves in 1 quart of water, place in sun for 1 hour and
wash head with this water. The leaves are a component
of some of the traditional bath mixtures used to treat
This is an old remedy for birth control
among Maya women, now apparently mostly forgotten.
Prepared from a handful of vine that has been boiled in
3 cups of water for 10 minutes, a cup is consumed before
each meal all during the menstrual cycle. It is said
that this dose is effective for up to 6 months.
Drinking this decoction during 9 menstrual cycles is
said to produce irreversible infertility in women.
The medicinal seeds are
round, reddish brown, and look like mustard seeds. They
are bitter and contain saponin. A decoction of the
seed is used to treat skin problems, breast tumors,
menstrual problems, deficiency of lactation and sluggish
labor. The sap of the plant is said to be febrifuge and
tonic. It is used in the treatment of long-continued
fevers of a low type as well as coughs. The plant is
used externally to cure itch. This herb is used for its
astringent properties in a patent formula called
Prostate Gland Pills, for swelling and inflammation of
the prostate. The formula is quite effective, but
during treatment the herb causes some men to temporarily
lose the capacity to sustain erection, a side effect
that disappears when the herb is withdrawn. In fact,
this effect helps support the therapy, because men are
supposed to refrain from sexual intercourse anyway
during treatment for prostate problems.
(Heracleum maximum (H lanatum)
mainly in a poultice for boils and other skin
dried powdered roots have been used on the gums to
relieve discomfort from loose teeth, and all over the
body to treat fever. Mixed with available fats or oils, the dried powdered roots
have been rubbed on affected parts to treat rheumatic
pains and heart palpitations.
Sometimes the roots have been boiled and the
liquid rubbed on for these treatments.
The root has been taken internally for colic,
gas, diarrhea, indigestion, and for asthma.
Cow parsnip is a remedy for the stomach and
nervous system. The
root, which loses most of its acridity upon drying and
should not be used fresh is made into a tea (a
teaspoon to a cup) and drunk for nausea that is of a
persistent nature but does not progress to vomiting,
as well as for acid indigestion or heartburn. In New
Mexico, it is often used for the gas and indigestion
that accompanies a hiatus hernia, particularly in
older women. The
seeds are equally effective and if tinctured (fresh or
dry), even a few drops on the tongue can settle the
most unsettled stomach.
Although not as antiseptic as oil of cloves,
the seed tincture is a good temporary analgesic when
applied to a sore tooth and is far less irritating the
root or seeds act as an antispasmodic to the
intestinal tract and will help quiet tenesmus or
cramping of the large intestine and the lower tract
and will help quiet tenesmus or cramping of the large
intestine and the lower section of the small
can sooth a spastic colon caused by mucous membrane
inflammations but is less effective when it is of a
distinctly nervous origin.
It may help bronchial spasms and will both
increase menstrual flow and relax uterine cramps.
In New Mexico a strong tea is made from the dry
or wilted roots and poured into the bath water of a
recently paralyzed person.
This is repeated once a day until some nerve
function has returned or the therapy has brought to
Also, in northern New Mexico, a poultice or
strong tea is applied to the face for tic douloureux
particularly where there is some motor paralysis, and
for aigre: a temporary paralysis of the face, neck, or
arms that is attributed to bad night air or drafts.
The powdered root or seeds can be used as a
poultice for sore muscles and joints, having a mild
veris (syn Primula officinalis)) Cowslip
is an underused but valuable plant.
The root is strongly expectorant, stimulating a
more liquid mucus and thus easing the clearance of
is given for chronic coughs, especially those
associated with chronic bronchitis and mucous
root is also thought to be mildly diuretic and
antirheumatic, and to slow blood clotting.
The leaves have similar properties to the root
but are weaker in action.
The flowers are believed to be sedative, and
are recommended for overactivity and sleeplessness,
particularly in children.
Cowslip flowers’ antispasmodic and
anti-inflammatory properties make them potentially
useful in the treatment of asthma and other allergic
flowers are also used in salves for sunburn and dry
The essential oils can soothe the mind and nerves. A
tea from Cowslip flowers often alleviates a tension
headache, defeats insomnia and prevents nightmares.
The high content of saponins present in the
root and calyx gives cowslip demulcent and expectorant
makes it a good cough remedy especially when phlegm is
flowers with the calyx removed are used to treat
migraines and kidney and bladder conditions.
With the calyx, they are used as a demulcent
and expectorant tea for cough and bronchitis. Cowslip
taken as a tea can influence the metabolism and flush
out uric acid accumulations.
For rheumatic pains, nerve pain, and weak
muscles cowslip oil can be rubbed on the affected
finely chopped root can be put through a garlic press
and the juice strained out.
It promotes vigorous sneezing, stimulating the
mucous membranes and beneficial for chronic rhinitis
and nasal stuffiness. Cowslip leaves are used in wound poultices.
Brush (Baccharis pilularis): An
infusion of the plant has been used as a general remedy
or panacea. Coast Miwok Indians used the heated leaves
to reduce swelling
Herb (Peperomia pellucida): In Suriname's
traditional medicine, a solution of the fresh juice of
stem and leaves is used against eye inflammation. It is
also applied against coughing, fever, common cold,
headache, sore throat, diarrhea, against kidney - and
prostate problems and against high blood pressure. In
Northeastern Brazil the plant is used in the treatment
of abscesses, furuncles, and conjunctivitis.
decoction or salad for kidney troubles, gout and
rheumatic pains; pounded plant warm poultice for boils
and abscesses. Externally, it is used as a facial rinse
for complexion problems. Leaf juice is used for colic
and abdominal pains. Avoid using with other pain
relievers and diuretics. Used as a poultice for sore
throats. Suppresses peristalsis due to the volatile oil
(Digitaria sanguinalis): A decoction of the
plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea. A folk
remedy for cataracts and debility, it is also said to be
Cramp Bark (Viburnum opulus):
Crampbark is effective at relieving any over-tense muscle, whether smooth
muscle in the intestines, airways, or uterus, or striated muscle in
the limbs or back. It may be taken internally or applied topically to
relieve muscle tension. The
herb also treats symptoms arising from excess muscle tension,
including breathing difficulties in asthma, and menstrual pain caused
by excessive contraction of the uterus..
For night cramps and back pain, lobelia is often mixed with
crampbark. The herb also
relieves constipation, colic, and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as
the physical symptoms of nervous tension.
Useful as a protection against threatened miscarriage.
Its astringent action gives it a role in the treatment of
excessive blood loss in periods and especially bleeding associated
with the menopause.
In some cases of arthritis, where joint weakness and pain have
caused muscles to contract until they are almost rigid, crampbark can
bring remarkable relief. As
the muscles relax, blood flow to the area improves, waste products
such as lactic acid are removed and normal function can return.
Crampbark is commonly used in treatments for high blood
pressure and other circulatory conditions.
is a specific remedy for pains in the thighs and back and a
bearing-down, expulsive pain in the uterus, whether during pregnancy
and childbirth or during menstruation. Crampbark
combines well with bearberry for bladder infections with painful
cramping and frequent urination with little passed.
For the relief of cramp it may be
combined with Prickly Ash and Wild Yam.
For uterine and ovarian pains or threatened miscarriage it may
be used with Black Haw and Valerian.
For bladder infections with painful cramping combine with
Cranesbill, American (Geranium
An astringent and clotting agent, American cranesbill is used
today much as in earlier times. The
herb is often prescribed for irritable bowel syndrome and hemorrhoids,
and it is used to staunch wounds.
It may also be used to treat heavy menstrual bleeding and
excessive vaginal discharge. As
a douche it can be used in leucorrhea.
Its powerful astringent action is used in secondary dysentery,
diarrhea, and infantile cholera (Boil with milk to which a little
cinnamon has been added and the milk cooked down to half its liquid
bleeding from the nose, wounds or small vessels, and from the
extraction of teeth may be checked effectively by applying the powder
to the bleeding orifice and, if possible, covering with a compress of
cotton. For Diabetes and
Brights disease a decoction taken internally has proven effective of
Unicorn root and Cranesbill.
One of the safest and most effective astringent herbs for
The leaves are used for
carbuncle, dysentery, hematuria, piles; dried leaves and
stems for boils, rheumatism, sore throat. Stem: latex
used for skin disease; stem or fruit peel for backache,
cancer, hernia, piles, swellings, and tuberculosis of
the testicles. Decoction of the fruit for hernia. Rot
is used for bladder inflammation and dysuria. The plant
is regarded as aphrodisiac, or at least strengthening to
the male power, used for spermatorrhea, as a lactagogue;
eating the plant is said to curb heart pain,
Crepe Myrtle (Lagerstroemia
indica): The taste is slightly bitter and
biting. The plant promotes diuresis, resolves clots and
bruises. It also is an antidote for poisoning. A
decoction of the flowers is used in the treatment of
colds. . As a diuretic, boil 2 leaves in 3 cups water
for 10 minutes and take in sips all day—not to exceed 6
cups weekly. Boil a slice of bark 7.5 cm x 2.5 cm in 2
quarts of water for 10 minutes and use to bathe wounds
Crinkleroot (Dentaria diphylla)
The root of
this little plant is a diffusive and somewhat pungent
stimulant, when dried; and also possesses a mild tonic
power. Its principal influence is expended upon the
nervous peripheries, and moderately upon the
capillaries. It is of the antispasmodic class of
nervines; and is useful in hysterical nervousness and
spasms of the more acute form, painful and tardy
menstruation, flatulent colic, and similar maladies
requiring a diffusive stimulant. It warms the surface,
and secures gentle perspiration. It is agreeable in
taste, but its influence is rather transient. It has
been claimed to have used it for many years with
unvarying success in epilepsy. The best method of giving
it is a tincture prepared by macerating four ounces of
the roots in a quart of diluted alcohol, straining and
pressing; of which two to three fluid drachms may be
given every four or two hours. The peppery root is
used as a folk remedy in the treatment of toothache. It
has also been chewed in the treatment of colds, an
infusion drunk to treat gas and other stomach problems.
A tea made from the root is gargled in the treatment of
sore throat, hoarseness etc. An infusion of the plant
has been used to treat fevers in children. Combined with
Acorus calamus root, it has been used in the
treatment of heart diseases. Toothwort tea can also be
used to soothe and calm nerves and is a mild natural
relaxant. The fresh juice can aid in digestion. The
crushed root of Toothwort can be used externally as a
plaster for aches, pains, and rheumatism.
retusa): Occasionally used in folk medicine in
tropical regions to treat stomach disorders and colic.
The leaves and flowers are used in Grenada to make a
cold-cure tea, where healers are said to favor parts of
the plant that caterpillars are attracted. It is used
in homeopathic medicine.
Croton, Texas (Croton
texensis): Doveweed contains croton oil, a
cathartic, and was used as such at Isleta, Acoma,
Laguna, and Zuni. Preparations of the plant have been
used for rheumatism, paralysis, earache (seeds placed in
ear), and headache (inhalation of smoke from burning
plant). The powdered leaves are mixed with honey,
beeswax, or Vaseline and applied to swollen joints. The
leaves, steeped in vinegar or wine, are applied to the
temples for headaches. The whole plant is placed under
mattresses to repel bedbugs and is burned like incense
as a fumigant. The herb is still used in small doses as
a laxative but it contains potentially cancer-causing
irritants and internal use is not recommended.
Crowfoot, Cursed (Ranunculus
sceleratus): When bruised and applied to the
skin it raises a blister and creates a sore that is not
easy to heal. If chewed it inflames the tongue and
produces violent effects. The herb should be used fresh
since it loses its effects when dried. The leaves and
the root are used externally as an antirheumatic. The
seed is tonic and is used in the treatment of colds,
general debility, rheumatism and spermatorrhea.
Crown Imperial Lily (Fritillaria
imperialis): Occasionally been used as a cough
remedy (expectorant) and to increase the milk flow in
Crucifixion Thorn (Castela
The cold brewed tea is used
to treat amoebic and giardic diarrhea, and any stomach
or intestinal flu, particularly in the flat-tasting,
early days of recuperation. Soak the stem pieces in
water to make it safer to drink. The tea makes a good
skin wash for scratches and abrasions.
Used traditionally within Ayurvedic and Unani Tibb herbal medicine to
help reduce inflammation and is prescribed for bronchitis and asthma.
It is reputed to very effective as a treatment for coughs. An old
gardener told me that it is often referred to as "pokok
asthma". The fresh
leaves are pounded and the extracted juice mixed with water.
An alternative method recommended is to boil a sprig in water
with honey thrown in for added measure.
Cubeb (Piper cubeba): Cubeb and its oil are carminative, diuretic, stimulant
and antiseptic and were employed as genito-urinary antiseptics and
especially for clearing up gonorrhoea.
Extract of cubeb is also expectorant, being helpful in
pulmonary infections such as bronchitis.
The powder from dried and crushed cubebs is added to cigarettes
for the relief of asthma. Oil
of cubeb is a constituent of some throat lozenges and is useful for
urinary ailments and acts as an antiseptic against gonorrhea. Used
for indigestion, catarrh, bronchitis, coughs, and lung problems.
Cigarettes made of cubeb are said to help with hay fever, asthma, and
pharyngitis. Composite herbal drugs containing P.cubeba as one of the
ingredients are clinically effective in the treatment of cough.
Alcoholic extract of the drug
shows antibacterial activity against Micrococcus pyrogens var. aureus.
Oil of cubeb is effective against influenza virus and Bacillus
italicum): Theophrastus wrote about the Cuckoo
Pint. It was used in ancient medicine, mixed with
honey, to cure coughs. Currently used in homeopathy
Cucumber, Chinese (Trichosanthes
used for diabetes, dry coughs, abscesses, childbirth
(second stage of labor), and abortion (tubers);
bronchial infections with thick phlegm, chest pain and
tightness; dry constipation, and lung and breast tumors
(fruits). Fruits are traditionally prepared as a winter soup to
ward off colds and influenza.
was isolated from the root tuber of a Chinese medicinal
herb Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz and was
identified as the active component of Tian Hua Fen, a
Chinese medicine described as early as the 16th century
as a treatment for various kinds of ulcer. Since the
discovery of its specific injurious effects on human
placental trophoblasts in the 1970's, trichosanthin has
been used clinically in China to induce abortion and to
treat diseases of trophoblastic origin such as
hydatiform mole, invasive mole and choriocarcinoma. Soon
after the laboratory finding in 1989 by McGrath et al.
that trichosanthin appeared to inhibit the HIV-1
replication in both acutely infected T-lymphoblastoid
cells and in chronically infected macrophages, and
selectively killed HIV-infected cells while leaving
uninfected cells unharmed, clinical trials of
trichosanthin as a potential treatment for HIV were
carried out in USA. Trichosanthin attacks the life cycle
of the virus at an entirely different point from AZT and
related drugs, and in other words, it has a unique
mechanism of action complementary to other drugs.
Present clinical reports showed that trichosanthin has
some curing effects on AIDS patients and suggested it to
be a possible treatment that may fill the gap in the
treatment of HIV disease.
Cucumber Root (Medeola
berry tea administered to babies with convulsions. Root
tea once used as a diuretic for dropsy.
Cucumber Tree (Magnolia
diaphoretic, tonic, and aromatic stimulant. It is used
in rheumatism and is contra-indicated in inflammatory
symptoms. In the Alleghany districts the cones are
steeped in spirits to make a tonic tincture. A warm
infusion is laxative and sudorific, a cold one being
antiperiodic and mildly tonic. It has historically been
used as a substitute for quinine in the treatment of
malaria. An infusion has been used in the treatment of
stomach ache and cramps. The bark has been chewed by
people trying to break the tobacco habit. A hot infusion
of the bark has been snuffed to treat sinus problems and
has also been held in the mouth to treat toothaches. The
bark is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use.
It does not store well so stocks should be renewed
annually. A tea made from the fruit is a tonic, used in
the treatment of general debility and was formerly
esteemed in the treatment of stomach ailments. In
Louisiana, the bark of the root and the fruit was used
in herbal treatments. The powdered root bark dosage was
about a teaspoonful. The tincture was most often used.
It was made by placing the fruit in weak alcohol for a
given time. The rural herbal users have used the fruit
of the cucumber tree to treat dyspepsia and general
debility for many years. Herbalists used the bark and
fruit prepared in the required form to give relief from
the pains of rheumatism. Midwives gave a tonic of the
cucumber tree for treatment in obstinate cases of
Culantro (Eryngium foetidum (E. antihystericum)
Carib medicine as a cure-all, and, specifically for
epilepsy, high blood pressure, and fevers, fits, and
chills in children.
Suriname's traditional medicine fitweed (culantro) is
used against fevers and flu.
is used as a tea for diarrhea, flu, fevers, vomiting,
diabetes and constipation. In India the root is used
to alleviate stomache.
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum): : Cumin
seed is used for diarrhea and indigestion.
Specific for headaches caused by ingestion. Hot cumin water is
excellent for colds and fevers and is made by boiling a teaspoon of
roasted seeds in 3 cups of water.
Honey can be added to soothe a sore throat.
It is supposed to increase lactation and reduce nausea in
pregnancy. Used in a poultice, it relieves swelling of the breast or the
testicles. Smoked in a
pipe with ghee, it is taken to relieve the hiccups.
Stimulates the appetite. Still
used in veterinary practice. Cumin
mixed with flour and water is good feed for poultry and it is said if
you give tame pigeons cumin it makes them fond of their home and less
likely to stray. Basalt
mixed with cumin seeds was a common country remedy for pigeons' scabby
backs and breasts.
Cupid's Shaving Brush (Emilia
A tea made from the leaves
is used in the treatment of dysentery. The juice of the
leaves is used in treating eye inflammations, night
blindness and sore ears. It is used in the treatment of
infantile tympanites and bowel complaints. The root is
used in the treatment of diarrhea.
Leaf (Murraya koenigii): Said
to be tonic and stomachic.
In India, the young leaves are taken for
dysentery and diarrhea.
The leaves and the stem are used as a tonic,
stimulant and carminative.
An infusion of the toasted leaves is
A paste of the bark and roots is applied to
bruises and poisonous bites.
The seeds are used to make a medicinal oil
called ‘zimbolee oil.’
Fresh juice of the leaves mixed with lemon
juice and sugar is prescribed for digestive disorders,
and eating 10 curry leaves every morning for 3 months
is thought to cure hereditary diabetes.
A few drops of the juice are believed to keep
A liberal intake of curry leaves impedes
premature greying of the hair.
The leaves, boiled in coconut oil, are massaged
into the scalp to promote hair growth and retain
The leaves may also be used as a poultice to
help heal burns and wounds.
Juice from the berries may be mixed with lime
juice and applied to soothe insect bites and stings.
media): Seeds used in folk medicine. They have
been used mainly topically to treat sores and skin
diseases. In India the seeds are used as a remedy for
glaucescens): The fragrant root is used in
Chinese medicine. The roots and stems are used to treat
coughs, pneumonia, uneasy breathing, and lung diseases.
They are also used in the treatment of asthma with
profuse sputum, coughs etc.
Cypress, White (Chamaecyparis
thyoides): A decoction of the leaves has been
used as a herbal steam for treating headaches and
backaches. A poultice made from the crushed leaves and
bark has been applied to the head to treat headaches.