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March 2017--Calendula


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CALENDULA

By Wildfeuer - Own work (own photo), CC BY 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1360653

Calendula officinalis
[ka-LEN-dew-luh oh-fiss-ih-NAH-liss]

 Family: Asteraceae (Composite)

 Names: Pot Marigold, Summer's Bride, Husbandman's Dial, Holigold, Marybud, Marygold, Bride of the Sun, Spousa Solis, Golds, bull flower; butterwort, care, cowbloom, death-flower, drunkard, golden flower of Mary, gouls, goulans, kingcups, holygold, sun’s bride, water dragon, yolk of egg, poet’s marygold, publican and sinner, ruddles, Scotch marigold, shining herb, solsequia,  Gold; Ringelblume, Studentenblume, Totenblume, Goldblume (German); souci (French); calendula (Italian); Nagietek lekarski (Polish); goedsbloem-wratten-kruid (Dutch); calendula gialla, fiorrancio, calenzola (Italian); calendula, flamenquilla, maravilla, flor de muerto (Spanish); maravilhas, marianas (Portuguese); ringblomma (Swedish); nogotki, lekarstvennye (Russian); chin-chan-hua (Chinese); janvah, azariyunah, azarboya (Arabic)

 Description: Native to Asia and southern Europe and was brought to America by early settlers.  Introduced to Britain by the Romans.  Calendula is a flowering annual that grows to a height of twelve to eighteen inches.  The stem is slightly fuzzy and the leaves are soft, long (growing to 6"), pale green.  The root is a long spindly taproot.  Flowers may be yellow or orange. The flowers are about one and one-half inches in diameter, consisting of concentric rows of ray florets surrounding the smaller ones making up the center disc.

 Cultivation: Direct seed in the garden once the last chance of frost has past or plants can be put out before the last frost being careful not to injure the long taproot when transplanting.  Germination is 7-10 days at a very high percentage if the seed is of good quality.  The young seedlings are susceptible to damping off so take care to have good drainage and ventilation.   Prefers a moderately healthy soil with average drainage and a pH of 5-8 but will grow in a wide range of soils.  They prefer full sun or partial shade. A second planting can be made at the beginning of July to ensure a fall harvest.  Thin plants to 12 inches apart.  If you dehead the plant religiously in spring and summer it may produce more flowers as the weather turns cooler.  Irrigation needs are on the high side so it’s recommended to water once or twice a week depending on the temperature, humidity and soil type.  Cultivation should be done soon after transplanting and probably one more time before it becomes unnecessary due to the short life of the crop in the field.  Pests include blister beetles, aphids and cucumber beetles.  Best way to deal with pests is to pick the flowers often so there is little time for the pests to feed.  Cucumber beetles are extremely difficult to deal with except with strong botanicals like rotenone. 
           
Flower harvest can start as early as late May in warm areas.  You can pick a particular planting three times a week until productivity goes way down, which is usually after 6-8 weeks.  Harvests start to diminish in the late plantings after the first frost.  The best time to pick is in the heat of the day when the resins are highest and the water content the lowest.  Never let the flowers develop to the point where the seed is forming or you will greatly diminish your harvest totals.
           
The flowers should be dried as soon as possible as they tend to heat up and decompose if kept in the sun or in your harvest bucket.  The petals dry quickly but the receptacle does not so you can expect a total drying time of 10 days or more at 90 degrees or so.  Some growers advocate quick drying at high temperatures of 120 degrees which dries them in 5-7 days.  They must also be sorted carefully as they reabsorb moisture readily.  Dry flower yields of 400-600 pounds per acre can be expected.  An acre would require a crew of 3-4 picking nearly every afternoon for 3-4 months.   

History: The word calendula is derived from the Latin calens meaning the first day of each month because the Romans claimed they bloomed the first of each month.  Christians called it "marygold" and "marybud" because it bloomed at all the festivals celebrating the Virgin Mary, also because people believed by constant association with the flowers they could ward off evil.  It should not be confused with Tagetes also called "marigold".  Known as the "herb of the sun" because the flowers open in the morning and close in the evening.  Mentioned as such in Shakespeare's A Winter's Tale.  The French name gauche-fer, meaning left-hand iron, was coined because the brilliant yellow marigold flower was thought to resemble the polished shield worn by warriors on the left arm.   The culinary use of calendula dates back to ancient Rome. Common people couldn't afford to buy saffron and they discovered that powdered calendula petals were an excellent substitute which is why it has been called "poor man's saffron". 
           
There are many stories about calendula.  One is the story of the four wood nymphs who fell in love with Apollo, the sun god.  The nymphs became so jealous of one another they began neglecting their duties to Apollo's sister, the goddess Diana.  She turned them into four dull-white marigolds, which distressed Apollo, but his only recourse was to send down his most brilliant rays to color them gold. 
           
In German folklore, rain was predicted if the flowers remained closed after 7 am.  In India, Buddhists held pot marigold sacred to the goddess Mahadevi, who carried a trident emblem adorned with the flowers, while her followers crowned themselves with marigolds at her festival.  Marigold was commonly used as an aphrodisiac, and thought to have great significance in love.  Planting marigold in the footsteps of a loved one was supposed to tie him to his beloved.  An old legend held that if a maiden touches a pot marigold with her bare foot she would be able to understand the language of birds.  In the Middle Ages in Europe it was believed that those who wore marigolds would have a vision of anyone who had robbed them.  Spanish sorcerers were said to wear it as a talisman.  Traditionally it was picked when the Sun entered the sign of Virgo and the picker had to carry a wolf’s tooth wrapped in a bay leaf.  In Mexico it is thought to be a flower of death and is believed to have spring from the blood of the Indians killed by the Spanish invaders.
           
Xochiquetzal, the Aztec love goddess, taught her people the message of the marigold, the petalled book of the cycles of life, of seed to leafy stem, of leafy stem to bud, of bud to flower open to the Sun, of flowers to drying petals that were the womb for the seed – to complete the cycle. Offerings of marigold petals were made to her. 

In the early days of this country dried marigold petals were sold in country stores out of a wooden barrel just like other herbs.  The practice of coloring butter made from autumn and winter milk--low in vitamin A and pale compared to spring butter--with skin-healing calendula was so common that butter became widely known as a burn ointment.  The pigmentation of ornamental fish in captivity can be intensified by adding Calendula to regular fish food.
 

Constituents: essential oil, carotenoid; flavanoids; sterol; mucilage; saponins; carotones; bitter glycosides; triterpenes; resi

Character: slightly bitter, pungent, drying, gently cooling 

Meridians/Organs affected:  liver, heart, lungs 

Key Actions: anti-inflammatory; relieves muscle spasms; astringent; prevents hemorrhaging; heals wounds; antiseptic; detoxifying; mildly estrogenic 

Cosmetic Use: The yellow or orange flowers produce a dye for the hair which women used in 16th century Europe.  Marigold water is soothing to the eyes and the flowers provide a face cream which leaves the skin smooth and silky.  When infused in water, marigold blooms make a tea that, when sipped, tones up a lazy circulation.  It is also said to alleviate varicose veins.  Since the blooms have healing properties the cooled infusion is valuable as a skin tonic for oily, blemished complexions.  It can also be used as a rich skin moisturizer, a hair shampoo and a rinse, the latter being particularly useful in highlighting the tints in brown and reddish hair.   

Chamomile and Calendula Hair Lightener
4 cups water
2 cups dried chamomile flowers
2 cups dried calendula flowers
1Tbsp lemon juice
1 Tbsp lemon extract
           
In a saucepan, bring water, chamomile, and calendula to a boil. Reduce heat, cover and simmer for 45 minutes.  Remove from heat and cool, stirring in lemon juice and extract.  When cooled enough for application, massage into hair, making sure that concentrated amounts stay in hair, and cover with plastic.  Leave on for at least 40 minutes, then rinse with warm water.  Use every other day for lasting effects.  Makes 4 cups.  Cover and refrigerate; discard after 5 days.  For all hair types 

Nourishing Cream
Gather 1 lb of the newly opened flowers and place in a large glass jar with a screw-top and cover with spirits of wine.  Leave in the sun for a week, shaking continually.  Then strain off the essence.  Heat a pound of pure lard and when melted, stir in the essence.  Add a teaspoonful of tincture of benzoin to preserve it, and as it cools, pour into screw-top jars and use as a night cream.  It will leave the skin soft and smooth and remove any soreness. 

Bath Mixture to cleanse the skin of  impurities
Boil together 1 lb barley meal and 2 lb of bran .  Add a large handful of borage leaves; 1 of lemon balm and 1 of marigold flowers.  Simmer together for 30 minutes and add to a warm bath. Soak in it for 30 minutes, adding more warm water as the bath cools.  Afterwards, rub down the body briskly with a warm towel. 

Marigold Bran Cleansing Scrub for Acne
4 1/2 Tbsp marigold water
2 Tbsp bran
1Tbsp sea salt
           
Add the cooled marigold water to the bran and stir thoroughly.  Add the salt and, using a fork, mix until you have a pudding-like paste.  If the mixture is too stiff, add a little more marigold water.  Apply the scrub in the usual way and massage your skin for four to five minutes, concentrating particularly on areas prone to spots and pimples.  Rinse with tepid and then cool water and pat dry. 

Medicinal Uses: Throughout the ages, tinctures made from calendula blossoms have been used to treat headaches, toothaches and even tuberculosis.  The ancient Romans used calendula to treat scorpion bites and soldiers in the American Civil War found it helped stop wounds from bleeding. There is nothing better for sore or inflamed eyes than to bathe them in marigold water.  (Place a large handful of flowers in a saucepan and add 1/2 pint water. Simmer for 20 minutes, strain and use while slightly warm.)
           
Calendula is a popular salve and cream ingredient because it decreases the inflammation of sprains, stings, varicose veins and other swellings and soothes burns, sunburn, rashes and skin irritations.  Laboratory studies show it kills bacteria and fungus such as ringworm, athlete's foot.  It is gentle enough to be applied as a tea to thrush in children's mouths. 

Taken internally, it has been used traditionally to promote the draining of swollen lymph glands, such as in tonsillitis and as part of the therapy for uterine or breast cancer, both as a poultice and as a tea.  Herbalists report success in using a swab of calendula preparation or calendula boluses to treat abnormal cervical cells.  Some antitumor activities have been observed in scientific studies.  The infusion or tincture helps inflammatory problems of the digestive system such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, regional ileitis and colitis.  Calendula has long been considered a detoxifying herb, and helps to treat the toxicity that underlies many fevers and infections and systemic skin disorders such as eczema and acne.  The herb is also considered cleansing for the liver (promotes bile production) and gallbladder and can be used to treat problems affecting these organs.  Makes a healing mouthwash for gums after tooth extraction.
           
Calendula has a mild estrogenic action and is often used to help reduce menstrual pain and regulate menstrual bleeding.  The infusion makes an effective douche for yeast infections
Calendula oil is extracted from the petals by maceration.  It is healing and rejuvenating, used in many skin preparations and in aromatherapy.
 

Applications:
Infusion is taken for menopausal problems, period pain, gastritis and for inflammation of the esophagus
Tincture is taken for stagnant liver problems, including sluggish digestion and also for menstrual disorders, particularly irregular or painful periods
Compress: Apply a pad soaked in the infusion to slow-healing wounds or varicose ulcers
Mouthwash: use the infusion for mouth ulcers and gum disease
Cream: Apply for any problem involving inflammation or dry skin; wounds; dry eczema; sore nipples in breastfeeding, scalds, and sunburn
Infused oil is use on chilblains, hemorrhoids, and broken capillaries

Combinations:
Digestive problems: marshmallow root and American Cranesbill
External soothing application: slippery elm
Antiseptic lotion: goldenseal and myrrh 

Herbal Healing Salve
2 oz dried comfrey leaves
 
1 oz dried calendula flowers

2 cups olive oil
1 oz pure beeswax
4 drops each tea tree and lavender essential oils
           
Heat herbs in olive oil over low heat for about 5 hours.  Do not let the oil boil or bubble.  A Crock-Pot or the lowest temperature setting on a range should be suitable for heating this mixture.  After cooking, strain out the herbs while oil is still warm.  Place 1 1/4 cups of the herb oil in a pan, add beeswax and heat just enough to melt the wax.  Add essential oils and stir.  Finally, pour the salve into widemouthed jars.  Store at room temperature.

Marigold Douche: 2 ¾ oz rosewater, 1 tsp marigold tincture, 1 tsp comfrey tincture.  Mix all the ingredients and shake well.  Dose: 1 tsp in 1 cup of warm water as a douche for thrush, cystitis, etc.

Marigold Conserve: Fill a large earthenware pot with marigold petals and pour on pure honey to cover all the flowerheads completely. Let stand in a warm place for six weeks.  Strain.  Use for infected wounds and give to children (over the age of 3) with infectious diseases such as chicken pox.  Dose: 1 tsp in a cup of warm water three times daily. 

TCM:
The plant is used to medicate bleeding gums and piles and tinctures of the flowers are used to treat a  variety of ailments, including bruises, cholera, cramps, fevers, flu, jaundice, sprains, stomach ache, syphilis, toothache, tuberculosis, typhus, ulcers and wounds.
 

Homeopathy:  Homeopaths use Calendula officinalis as a local application to open wounds, to stop bleeding after dental work, and internally for cancer.  It is indicated especially for excessive pain and a tendency to be chilled, especially in damp weather. 

Veterinary Use: St. Hildegard von Bingen praised calendula as a remedy for animals, recommending it to treat flatulence in sheep caused by bad feed.  For this purpose, give the sheep fresh calendula juice.  For cough in cattle or sheep, spray freshly pressed calendula juice into the nostrils of the affected animal. I have had great success using calendula salve on animals for wounds, injuries and inflammation.  Fox this, mix together equal amounts of calendula and comfrey salves. Calendula tea is also suitable for washing wounds. 

Emotional Uses: Marigold is said to comfort the heart and spirit.  It is used for people who are nervous and easily frightened, who have low defences, pick up illnesses easily and feel themselves in need of protection.  It is associated with shock and trauma and the expression of strong emotions, particularly anger.  A solar herb, marigold is used to temper the excesses of Mars; that is, anger, impatience and pent up energy.  It is good for hot-headedness; in the form of headaches with stabbing pains and for rashness, intolerance and foolhardiness.  It has a smoothing effect, like that of unruffling feathers and soothes prickliness.  Buy some marigold flowers and keep them wrapped in a white cloth.  Carry them with you.  When you feel in need of protection, hold the bag and feel the warm solar energy radiating through you.   

Aromatherapy Uses:
EXTRACTION: an absolute by solvent extraction from the flowers. The real calendula absolute is produced only in small quantities and is difficult to get hold of.
CHARACTERISTICS: A dark greenish-brown viscous liquid with an intensely sharp, herbaceous odor.
BLENDS WELL: oakmoss, hyacinth, floral and citrus oils
CONSTITUENTS: The absolute contains calendulin, waxes and volatile oil
USES: Skin care: burns, cuts, eczema, greasy skin, inflammations, insect bites, rashes, wounds, cracked nipples, varicose veins 

Flower Essence: The Calendula flower imparts a warm, golden light of healing for those souls who must learn to use “the Word” as a truly creative spiritual force.  It is especially indicated for personal relationship work, and for all healing and teaching work when the art of communication must be intensively developed as a soul force.  Calendula gives great forces of warmth and benign compassion to the human soul, especially helping to balance the active and receptive modes of communication. 

Ritual Use: Gender - Hot; Planet - Sun; Element - Fire; Basic Powers: Love, Clairvoyance.  Place the flower beneath the head at night to induce clairvoyant dreams.  A vase of these flowers in any room immediately brings a renewed surge of life to everyone in it. Sometimes added to love sachets.  It should be gathered at noon. In the 16th century, those who drank a potion made from marigolds were reputed to be able to see fairies.  Sun Magic, carried into court for positive outcomes in legal matters, prophesy, simple joys.  Language of Flowers: sacred affections; joy; remembrance; grief 

Other Uses:  For an orange dye for wool: tear up 1 pint of marigold flowers for each oz of wool you want to dye. Put the flowers in a large pot, and add enough water to cover.  Boil the flowers for 30 minutes; then strain out the flowers and add enough fresh water to make 1 quart of dye solution for each ounce of wool to be dyed. Wet the wool yarn, fabric or unlined garment in warm water; squeeze out excess water; add the yarn, fabric or garment to the dye bath; and let simmer (do not boil) for about 30 minutes.  Now turn off the heat, let the solution cool, remove the yarn or garment and rinse it in cool water until the water runs clear.
           
Some marigold plants appear to be natural pest repellents that keep insects away without being poisonous to people or pets. 

Culinary Use: The edible part of the calendula blossom is the "petal" as the center of the flower is strong and bitter. To remove petals, grasp the bloom in one hand and gently pull the petals from the disk.  Calendulas have long been used to color butters and cheeses.  They seem to add more color than flavor to most dishes but they do give a delicate, aromatic, salty bitterness.  Petals must be well bruised to give off any color.  The easiest way to do this is to chop the fresh petals finely.  The taste vaguely suggests marigold: herbaceous and slightly musky.  Calendula petals are most commonly used cooked in rice dishes, custards and puddings, but they are also good added to baked goods and egg dishes, and as a garnish for salads and vegetables.  Also add the petals to meat dishes, cream soups, chowders, cream cheese or yogurt dips and mashed potatoes or turnips. The petals can be dried for use in winter soups and stews.  They are best dried on paper, canvas or cheesecloth  rather than screens or baskets, as they have a tendency to stick to the surface that they're dried on.  Keep in a tightly sealed container in a cool, dry place for use out of season.  Before adding dried petals to a recipe, pulverize them.   

Recipes:
Monkfish Pasta with Marigolds and Anchusa

12 oz monkfish, cubed
1 1/4 cups good fish stock
10-12 oz fresh white or green tagliatelle
1 Tbsp butter
1 Tbsp each chopped fresh coriander, dill, parsley and chives
salt and pepper
5/8 cup light cream
1 Tbsp marigold petals
2 tsp anchusa flowers
           
Poach the monkfish in the fish stock for about 10 minutes, until just done.  Drain and keep warm.  Cook the pasta in plenty of boiling, salted water for 3-4 minutes, until 'al dente'.  Drain, toss in the butter and keep warm.  Mix together the herbs, fish and pasta and season to taste. Warm the cream in a heavy pan, then pour it over the pasta.  Serve in a beautiful bowl, tossing in the flower petals at the last moment. (Cooking with Flowers) 

Turkey Calendula Roll-Ups
8 oz cream cheese, at room temperature
2 Tbsp low-fat mayonnaise
1 Tbsp horseradish
2-3 tsp lemon juice
2 Tbsp diced sweet pickle relish
1 tart apple, peeled, cored, and finely diced
1 cup calendula petals
4 12-inch tortillas
8 oz wafer-thin turkey slices or ham, if desired
Lettuce leaves, for garnish
Calendula petals for garnish
           
In a bowl, blend the cream cheese with the mayonnaise, horseradish, lemon juice, and pickle relish.  Gently stir in apple and calendula petals.  With a spatula spread the mixture evenly over each tortilla.  Cover spread with a single layer of turkey (or ham) slices.  Roll up the filled tortilla, jelly-roll style.  Cut immediately, or wrap tightly in plastic wrap and chill until serving.  To serve, cut to desired thickness, and arrange on a serving platter over a bed of lettuce leaves.  Sprinkle with additional calendula petals.  (Edible Flowers: A Kitchen Companion) 

Greengage and Marigold Jelly
4 lb yellow plums

granulated sugar
2 ½ cups marigold petals
           
Simmer the plums until soft in water to cover.  Strain through a jelly bag.  Next day, add 1 ½ cups of sugar to each 2 ½ cups of juice.  Stir over a low heat until the sugar has dissolved, then boil until; setting point is reached.  Leave in the pan for 10 minutes off the heat, then stir in the marigold metals.  This allows the jelly to set slightly so that the petals are distributed evenly instead of floating in a mass to the top. Pour into warm clean jelly glasses, seal and cover. (The Complete Book of Herbs and Spices) 

Marigold Cake
1 cup softened, sweet butter
1 generous cup superfine sugar
4 eggs, beaten
2 cups all-purpose flour
1 tsp baking powder
Grated peel of 1 orange and 1 lemon
3 Tbsp fresh marigold petals or 2 Tbsp dried
Granulated sugar (optional)
           
Grease and line a 9x5x3" loaf pan.  Cream the butter with the sugar and add the beaten egg little by little.  Sift the flour with the baking powder and fold into the creamed mixture.  Add the peel and marigold petals.  Spoon into the pan and bake in an oven preheated to 350F for about 1 hour, sprinkling with granulated sugar half-way through, if desired. Cool for 5 minutes, then remove from the pan. Serve when just cool.  This cake keeps well and can readily be frozen too.  (Betty Crocker's Book of Flowers) 

Spring Garden Salad
2 cup leaf lettuce, torn apart
2 cup dandelion greens, torn apart
1 cup very young comfrey leaves, shredded
1 cup spinach leaves, shredded
1 cup  Queen Anne lace blossoms, separated
½ cup Calendula blossoms
1/2 cup thinly sliced radishes 

Dressing:
1 tsp salt
¼  tsp dry mustard
¼  tsp fresh black pepper
2 Tbsp honey
1/3 cup apple cider vinegar
1 cup oil
           
Combine all salad greens and blossoms in a salad bowl; toss well.  Place all dressing ingredients, except oil, in blender on low speed.  Turn blender to high; add oil slowly.  Pour over tossed salad and serve immediately.  Serves 12.  (Edible Flowers a Recipe Collection) 

Golden Pumpkin-Calendula Bread
1 1/2 cups pumpkin purée
2 1/2 cups whole-wheat flour
2 tsp baking powder
6-8 calendulas, petals only, chopped
1 tsp cinnamon
1/4 tsp cloves
1/2 cup butter, softened
1/4 cup honey
3 eggs, separated
3 Tbsp lemon juice
1 cup milk, water, or soy milk
           
Preheat oven to 350F.  Cut a small pumpkin into 1- to 2-inch pieces, remove the seeds, and steam it for 15-20 minutes or until tender. Remove the pulp from the skin and put it in the blender or processor with enough water to form a thick purée.
           
Stir the dry ingredients together.  In another bowl blend the butter with the honey, egg yolks, and lemon juice, beating until smooth.  Mix in the pumpkin purée and continue beating, adding the flour mixture until stiff, fold them in, and pour the mixture into two 9x5x3-inch buttered and floured loaf pans. Bake for 1 hour or until a knife comes out clean and dry.  Makes 2 loves (The Complete Book of Flowers) 

Mushroom Salad with 'Lemon Gem' Marigolds
3 cups thinly sliced mushrooms
3 cups tender baby lettuce leaves
1 cup chicory leav
2 Tbsp fresh snipped chives
¼ cup fresh dill sprigs
handful of 'Lemon Gem' marigold blossoms
small handful chive blossoms 

Mayonnaise:
Zest of 1 lemon
Handful 'Lemon Gem' marigold petals
1 clove garlic
1 extra-large egg yolk
¾  cup olive oil
1-2 Tbsp lemon juice
salt & freshly ground pepper
           
Clean mushrooms (if dirty) with mushroom brush.  Wash the salad greens and spin or pat them dry. Rinse the herbs and flowers if necessary and pat them dry.  Keep the salad ingredients cool until ready to assemble.
 

Lemon Mayonnaise
           
Put the lemon zest, marigold petals, and garlic in a mortar and bruise them well.  Stir in the egg yolk.  Add the oil, drop by drop, until the mixture begins to thicken; then in a fine stream, until the mayonnaise emulsifies.  Stir in the lesser amount of lemon juice and season with salt and pepper.  They mayonnaise should be a bit tart.  Taste for seasoning.
           
Toss the mushrooms lightly with about one-third of the mayonnaise; add a little more mayonnaise if they are not moistened enough.  Arrange the greens on a chilled platter.  Scatter the chives and dill over the greens.  Arrange the mushrooms on the salad.  Scatter the marigolds and chive blossoms over the salad.  Pass the remaining mayonnaise as the salad is served.   (Flowers in the Kitchen)
 

Marigold Cheese Soup
¼ cup butter                                               

3 Tbsp minced marigold petals
½ cup each minced celery and green peppers
1 cup milk
¾ cup each minced onions and carrots          
1 cup cream
4 Tbsp flour                                                 

2 Tbsp sherry
1 quart chicken stock                      

chopped chives or parsley
3 cups grated Cheddar cheese   

additional petals
salt and pepper

           
Melt butter and sauté celery, green peppers, onions, and carrots for 12 minutes.  Add flour, constantly stirring, and slowly add stock, stirring constantly until slightly thickened.  Lower heat and slowly add cheese, stirring gently.  Add salt, pepper, marigold petals, milk, cream, and sherry.  Heat but do not boil.  Garnish with finely chopped chives or parsley and a single marigold petal.  Pour into a tureen for serving and place watercress and marigold flowers around the tureen. (The Forgotten Art of Flower Cookery) 

Orange Cake
Cake batter:
5 eggs
½ cup butter, softened to room temperature
1 ½ cups granulated sugar
rind of 2 lemons, grated
rind of 1 orange, grated
1 cup sour cream
½ cup plain yogurt
3 cups all purpose flour
2 tsp baking soda
½ cup calendula petals, chopped
             
Preheat oven to 350F. Separate eggs.  Beat whites until they form stiff peaks.  Set aside.  Cream butter and sugar together.  Blend in egg yolks, lemon rind, orange rind, sour cream and yogurt. Beat until smooth. Sift dry ingredients together.  Slowly add dry ingredients to wet, mixing well.  Gently fold in beaten egg whites and calendula petals.  Butter and flour a Bundt cake or angel food cake pan.  Pour in cake batter and bake for 60 minutes.  Remove from oven and let cool in pan 10 minutes, then remove to a cooling rack and allow to cool completely. 

Syrup topping:
½ cup orange juice
¼ cup lemon juice
¼ cup Grand Marnier
¼ cup granulated sugar
           
Combine all ingredients in a saucepan over a low heat.  Bring to a boil, then simmer for 3 minutes.  Pour hot syrup over cooled cake and garnish with calendula petals.  (Edible Flowers from Garden to Palate)
 

Marigold Potato Puff
6 large potatoes
1 bay leaf
1 ¼ cups milk
4 Tbsp butter
1 tsp powdered marigold petals
1 tsp salt
½ tsp black pepper
2 eggs
1 Tbsp shredded fresh marigold petals

           
Peel potatoes, cut in quarters, and cover wit boiling salted water.  Add bay leaf, and cook until tender.  Then drain potatoes, discard bay leaf, and mash potatoes thoroughly.  Be sure no lumps remain.  Preheat oven to 350F.  Heat milk in small saucepan.  Dissolve butter and powdered petals in heated ilk, and stir mixture into mashed potatoes.  Add salt and pepper.  Separate eggs and beat yolks until thick and lemon-colored. Beat yolks into mashed potatoes. Now beat egg whites until they peak; fold into mashed potatoes.  Bake, in greased casserole, until puffed and golden brown (about 30 minutes).  Before serving, sprinkle with shredded fresh petals.  (A Feast of Flowers)

 

Marigold Wine

8 lbs sugar

2 lbs honey

3 gallons water

shells and whites of 3 eggs

8 quarts marigold petals

1 ½ lbs seedless raisins, chopped

5 Tbsp brewer’s yeast, spread on both sides of a piece of toast

3 oranges

1 pint brandy

½ oz isinglass solution           

            Boil 7 lbs of the sugar, honey, and water together, and add the shells and whites of the eggs. Filter the shells and impurities out through fine muslin, and pour the boiling liquid over the petals and raisins in a tub.  Cover it tightly, and leave for 24 hours, at which point stir, re-cover, and let stand for a further 3 days.  Place the thinly pared rinds (no white) of 3 oranges and 1 pound white sugar in the bottom of a cask and pour the strained liquid on top.  Float the toast on the surface to start the fermentation, and cover the bunghole lightly. When the wine has ceased frothing remove the toast and add 1 pint brandy and ½ oz isinglass solution, bung the cask firmly, and leave to mature for 3-5 months before bottling. (Mastering Herbalism) 

Pagan Punch
1 part calendula flowers
1 part damiana leaves
1 part meadowsweet flowers
1 part red clover flowers
1 part sweet woodruff flowers
fresh fruit juice
honey or maple syrup to taste
fresh calendula flower petals
           
Make a strong infusion of herbs, using 1-2 oz of the mixture per quart of boiling water.  Strain out the herbs  Add equal amount of fruit juice to the tea, cranberry and raspberry are good choices.  Sweeten lightly with honey or maple syrup to taste.  Serve chilled, garnished with fresh edible flower petals of calendula if desired.  (Healing Tonics)
 

References:
A Kitchen Witch's Cookbook
, Patricia Telesco, Llewellyn, 1994; 1-56718-707-2
Betty Crocker's Book of Flowers
, Jane Newdick; Prentice hall; 1989; 0-13-073610-4
Blended Beauty,
 Philip B., Ten Speed Press; 1995; 0-89815-742-0
The Complete Book of Flowers
, Denise Diamond; North Atlantic; 1990; 1-55643-079-5
The Complete Book of Herbs
, Lesley Bremness, Dorling Kindersley, 1988; 0-670-81894-1
The Complete Book of Herbs & Spices
, Sarah Garland, Viking, 1979; ISBN: 0-671-05575-5
The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments
, Carol Ann Rinzler, Facts on File, 1990; 0-8160-2008-6
The Complete Medicinal Herbal
, Penelope Ody, Dorling Kindersley, 1993; 1-56458-187-X
Cooking with Flowers
, Jenny Leggatt, Fawcett Columbine, 1987; 0-449-90252-8
Cosmetics from the Earth
, Roy Genders, Alvred van der Marck, 1985; 0-912383-20-8
Culinary Herbs
, Ernest Small, NRC Research Press, 1997; ISB: 0-660-16668-2
Culinary Herbs & Condiments, M. Grieve, Dover, 1971, ISBN: 0-486-21513-X
Edible Flowers A Kitchen Companion with Recipes
, Kitty Morse, Ten Speed, 1995; 0-89815-754-4
Edible Flowers A Recipe Collection
, Marilyn Lande, Lan-Design Publications; 1994; 0-96375-961-2
Edible Flowers From Garden to Palate,
Cathy Wilkinson Barash, Fulcrum, 1993; 1-55591-164-1
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
, Andrew Chevallier, Dorling Kindersley, 1996; 0-7894-1067-2
A Feast of Flowers
, Francesca Tillona and Cynthia Strowbridge, Funk & Wagnalls, 1969
Flower Essence Repertory
, Patricia Kaminski and Richard Katz, Flower Essence Society, 1996; ISBN: 0-9631306-1-7
Flowers in the Kitchen
, Susan Belsinger, Interweave Press, 1991; 0-934026-63-7
The Forgotten Art of Flower Cookery
, Leona Woodring Smith; Pelican Publishing, 1985; 0-88289-464-1
Fresh Herbs
, Barbara Radcliffe Rogers, Gallery Books, 1990; 0-8317-3574-0
Geraldene Holt's Complete Book of Herbs
, Geraldene Holt, Henry Holt, 1991; 0-8050-1988-X
Healing Tonics,
Jeanine Faith Pollak, Storey Books, 2000; ISBN: 1-58017-240-7
Herbs for Health and Healing
, Kathi Keville, Rodale, 1997; 0-87596-293-9
The Illustrated Herb Encyclopedia
, Kathi Keville, Mallard Press, 1991; 0-7924-5307-7
Magical Herbalism, Scott Cunningham, Llewellyn, 1982; 0-87542-120-2
Mastering Herbalism
, Paul Huson, Stein and Day, 1975; ISBN: 0-8128-1847-4
Medicinal Herbs in the Garden, Field & Marketplace
, Lee Sturdivant and Tim Blakley, San Juan Naturals; 1998; ISBN: 0-9621635-7-0
Medicine
of the Earth, Susanne Fischer-Rizzi, Rudra Press, 1996; ISBN: 0-915801-59-0
The Natural Beauty Book
, Anita Guyton, Thorsons, 1991; 0-7225-2498-
A Woman’s Book of Herbs, Elisabeth Brooke, The Women’s Press, 1992; ISBN: 0-7043-4296-0

Resources:

Companion Plants, www.companionplants.com  plants, seed 

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