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Cabbage (Brassica oleracea): Cabbage’s best known medicinal use is as a poultice—the leaves of the wild or cultivated plant are blanched, crushed, or chopped, and applied to swellings, tumors and painful joints. Wild cabbage leaves eaten raw or cooked aid digestion and the breakdown of toxins in the liver, so the Romans’ eating it to ease a hangover was quite sensible.  The leaves can be used as a poultice to cleanse infected wounds - the mid-rib is removed and the leaf ironed then placed on the affected area whilst still hot. The seeds are anthelmintic, diuretic, laxative and stomachic.  Cabbage is also detoxifying and helpful in the long term treatment of arthritis.  The high vitamin C content of cabbage has made it useful in the prevention of scurvy.

Cabbage Tree (Andira inermis): Cabbage tree produces a smooth grey bark which has been used in herbal medicine systems as a strong purgative to expel intestinal worms. It is treated with much respect by the rainforest shamans and herbal healers as a very powerful medicine since too large of a dose causes vomiting, fever, delirium, and even death. Some Indian tribes in the Amazon prepare a bark decoction to use for ring worm and other fungal infections on the skin. Usually taken as an infusion

Calabar Bean (Physostigma venenosum): Chiefly used for diseases of the eye (especially for glaucoma as it reduces pressure on the eyeball); it causes rapid contraction of the pupil and disturbed vision. Also used as a stimulant to the unstriped muscles of the intestines in chronic constipation. Its action on the circulation is to slow the pulse and raise blood-pressure; As a physostigmine, it is used internally for neuromuscular diseases (notably myasthenia gravis), and postoperative constipation.  It depresses the central nervous system, causing muscular weakness; it has been employed internally for its depressant action in epilepsy, cholera, etc., and given hypodermically in acute tetanus. Formerly used in the treatment of tetanus, epilepsy, and rheumatism. 

Calabash Tree (Crescentia cujete): Uses include the seed as an abortive and the roasted fruit pulp was eaten to force menses, birth, and afterbirth.  Consequently, it is best not to consume this plant while pregnant.  The pulp was also used as a purgative and in Barbados for abortions when boiled with leaves of Swietenia spp. and Petiveria alliacea. The mixture, however, causes nausea, diarrhea and poisoning. Dried bark shows in vitro antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcos aureus and Escherichia coli.  In Suriname's traditional medicine, the fruit pulp is used for respiratory problems (asthma).

Calamint (Calamintha officinalis): Diaphoretic, expectorant, aromatic. The whole herb has a sweet, aromatic odor and an infusion of the dried leaves, collected about July, when in their best condition and dried in the same way as Catmint tops, makes a pleasant cordial tea, which was formerly often taken for weaknesses of the stomach and flatulent colic. It is used in hysterical complaints, and a conserve made of the young fresh tops has been used, for this purpose.
          Culpepper says that it 'is very efficacious in all afflictions of the brain,' that it 'relieves convulsions and cramps, shortness of breath or choleric pains in the stomach or bowels,' and that 'it cures the yellow jaundice.' He also recommends it, taken with salt and honey, for killing worms

Calamint, Trailing (Calamintha cretica)  A minty scented tea is used in Cretan ethno-medicine

Calamus (Acorus americanus) Calamus rhizome is a bitter tonic that stimulates the digestive juices and is combined with gentian in the tonic Stockton bitters.  It counters overacidity, heartburn, and intestinal gas.  Herbalists report it useful to help reduce severe loss of appetite due to cancer or other illness or the eating disorder anorexia nervosa.  Traditional Islamic medicine employs calamus for stomach and liver inflammation and rheumatism, as well as a calamus-rose oil-vinegar mix to treat burns. Egyptians used sweet flag for scrofula, but it should be combined with supporting, more effective herbs for this chronic condition.   
            Chinese studies show that calamus extracts kill bacteria, lower blood pressure by dilating the blood vessels, stop coughing, and eliminate lung congestion.  Traditional Chinese medicine uses it to open the orifices, vaporize phlegm and quiet the spirit; for phlegm veiling and clocking the sensory orifices with such symptoms as deafness, dizziness, forgetfulness, and dulled sensorium, as well as seizures or stupor.  It harmonizes the middle burner and transforms turbid dampness: for such symptoms as chest and epigastric fullness and abdominal pain due to dampness distressing the Spleen and Stomach.  Also used both internally and topically for wind-cold-damp painful obstruction, trauma and sores.    Use with caution in cases of yin deficiency with heat signs or where there is irritability and excessive sweating or vomiting blood. According to some traditional sources, this herb antagonizes ma huang.   

             The Regional Research Institute in India found that calamus reduces epileptic fits and even eases some emotional problems.  It is also used in India to treat asthma. The Native Americans for the Great Plains chewed it when they had a fever, cough, cold, or toothache.  The American species is especially sedative to the central nervous system and stops muscle spasms.  In India the burnt root mixed with some bland oil is used as a poultice for flatulence and colic as well as for paralyzed limbs and indolent ulcers and wounds.   Its solvents are alcohol and partially in hot water.

Calea (Calea zacatechichi): Calea zacatechichi is a plant used by the Chontal Indians of Mexico to obtain divinatory messages during dreaming. At human doses, organic extracts of the plant produce the EEG and behavioral signs of somnolence and induce light sleep in cats. Large doses elicit salivation, ataxia, retching and occasional vomiting. The effects of the plant upon cingulum discharge frequency were significantly different from hallucinogenic- dissociative drugs (ketamine. quipazine, phencyclidine and SKF-10017). In human healthy volunteers, low doses of the extracts administered in a double-blind design against placebo increased reaction time end time-lapse estimation. A controlled nap sleep study in the same volunteers showed that Calea extracts increased the superficial stages of sleep and the number of spontaneous awakenings. The subjective reports of dreams were significantly higher than both placebo and diazepam, indicating an increase in hypnagogic imagery occurring during superficial sleep stages. Sources: Crimson Sage

Calendula (Calendula officinalis): : Throughout the ages, tinctures made from calendula blossoms have been used to treat headaches, toothaches and even tuberculosis.  The ancient Romans used calendula to treat scorpion bites and soldiers in the American Civil War found it helped stop wounds from bleeding. There is nothing better for sore or inflamed eyes than to bathe them in marigold water.  Calendula is a popular salve and cream ingredient because it decreases the inflammation of sprains, stings, varicose veins and other swellings and soothes burns, sunburn, rashes and skin irritations.  Laboratory studies show it kills bacteria and fungus such as ringworm, athlete's foot.  It is gentle enough to be applied as a tea to thrush in children's mouths. 
           Taken internally, it has been used traditionally to promote the draining of swollen lymph glands, such as in tonsillitis and as part of the therapy for uterine or breast cancer, both as a poultice and as a tea.  Herbalists report success in using a swab of calendula preparation or calendula boluses to treat abnormal cervical cells.  Some antitumor activities have been observed in scientific studies.  The infusion or tincture helps inflammatory problems of the digestive system such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, regional ileitis and colitis.  Calendula has long been considered a detoxifying herb, and helps to treat the toxicity that underlies many fevers and infections and systemic skin disorders such as eczema and acne.  The herb is also considered cleansing for the liver (promotes bile production) and gallbladder and can be used to treat problems affecting these organs.  Makes a healing mouthwash for gums after tooth extraction.
           Calendula has a mild estrogenic action and is often used to help reduce menstrual pain and regulate menstrual bleeding.  The infusion makes an effective douche for yeast infections.  

California False Hellebore (Veratrum californicum): Although a very poisonous plant, California false hellebore was often employed medicinally by a number of native North American Indian tribes who used it mainly as an external application to treat wounds etc.  It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. Any use of this plant, especially internal use, should be carried out with great care and preferably only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner.  A decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of venereal disease. The roots have been grated then chewed and the juice swallowed as a treatment for colds. A poultice of the mashed raw root has been used as a treatment for rheumatism, boils, sores, cuts, swellings and burns. The dried and ground up root has been used as a dressing on bruises and sores. A poultice of the chewed root has been applied to rattlesnake bites to draw out the poison. The powdered root has been rubbed on the face to allay the pain of toothache.  A decoction of the root has been taken orally by both men and women as a contraceptive. A dose of one teaspoon of this decoction three times a day for three weeks is said to ensure permanent sterility in women.

California Laurel (Umbellularia californica)...  The plant is still used a  pain reliever for headaches and rheumatism.  A tea from the leaves is one method of administration.  For rheumatism, early settlers used a hot bath in which they had steeped laurel leaves.  Others blended the oil from the leaves with lard and rubbed the mixture on the body.  The crushed leaves are an excellent herbal “smelling salt,” held briefly under the nose of a person who is faint or has fainted.  Prolonged breathing of the crushed leaves can cause a short-term frontal headache which can be cured, oddly enough, by a tea of the leaves.  The crushed leaves make an excellent tea for all headaches and neuralgia, possessing substantial anodyne effects and they further have value as a treatment for the tenesmus or cramps from diarrhea, food poisoning, and gastroenteritis in general—two to four leaves crushed and steeped for tea, repeated as needed.  California laurel was employed medicinally by some native North American Indian tribes who used it particularly as an analgesic to treat a variety of complaints. It has a beneficial effect upon the digestive system. An infusion has been used by women to ease the pains of afterbirth. Externally, an infusion has been used as a bath in the treatment of rheumatism. A decoction of the leaves has been used as a wash on sores and to remove vermin from the head. They are harvested as required and can be used fresh or dried.  A poultice of the ground seeds has been used to treat sores.  The seeds have been eaten as a stimulant.

California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica)..... West Coast Indians used the California poppy chiefly as a pain reliever for toothache.  The plant was also prescribed as a sedative for headache and insomnia, and it is still mentioned today as a gentle sedative and analgesic.  California poppy is not a narcotic like its relative the opium poppy.  It tends to normalize psychological function.  It’s gently antispasmodic, sedative, and analgesic effects make it a valuable herbal medicine fore treating physical and psychological problems in children.  It may also prove beneficial in attempts to overcome bedwetting, difficulty in sleeping, and nervous tension and anxiety.  May be useful in the treatment of gall-bladder colic.

Calliopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria): Native Americans chewed the leaves for toothache, and applied a poultice of them to skin sores and bruises.  The powdered root in warm water was used as a wash for sore eyes.  A tea made of the root was used for stomachache, diarrhea, and fever. This plant is an effective astringent and hemostatic, with its effects lasting the length of the intestinal tract and therefore of use in dysentery and general intestinal inflammations.  It may be used as a systemic hemostatic; when drunk after a sprain or major bruise or hematoma will help stabilize the injury and facilitate quicker healing.  The tea will also lessen menstrual flow.  A few leaves in a little water or a weak tea is a soothing eyewash.

Calotrope (Calotropis procera): Has been used in India as a remedy for dysentery, diarrhea and other conditions, and topically for eczema.  It has also long been used in India for abortive and suicidal purposes. Mudar root-bark is very largely used there as a treatment for elephantiasis and leprosy, and is efficacious in cases of chronic eczema.  

Caltrop (Kallstroemia grandiflora)....Native Americans chewed the leaves for toothache, and applied a poultice of them to skin sores and bruises.  The powdered root in warm water was used as a wash for sore eyes.  A tea made of the root was used for stomachache, diarrhea, and fever. This plant is an effective astringent and hemostatic, with its effects lasting the length of the intestinal tract and therefore of use in dysentery and general intestinal inflammations.  It may be used as a systemic hemostatic; when drunk after a sprain or major bruise or hematoma will help stabilize the injury and facilitate quicker healing.  The tea will also lessen menstrual flow.  A few leaves in a little water or a weak tea is a soothing eyewash.

Calumba (Jateorhiza palmata): Calumba is an excellent digestive remedy that tones the whole tract, stimulating it gently but having no astringent properties.  It may be used whenever debility occurs that is connected with some digestive involvement.  Internally used for morning sickness, atonic dyspepsia with low stomach acid, diarrhea, and dysentery. 

Camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora): This native of China is the source of camphor, which is somewhat antiseptic, acts as a circulatory stimulant, and has a calming effect in cases of hysteria, general nervousness, and neuralgia.  The distilled oil has been used to treat diarrhea, rheumatism, and muscular pains.  It is commonly applied externally as a counterirritant and analgesic liniment.  It may also be applied to skin problems, such as cold sores and chilblains and used as a chest rub for bronchitis and other chest infections.  It is used for bronchitis and asthma to control hypersecretion, for exhaustion, depression, stomachache and abdominal pain, to stimulate blood and energy circulation, remove excess moisture, and kill insects/worms.  It is effective externally against parasites, ringworm, scabies and to stop itch.  Camphor is frequently found in oils for external use, as it opens the lungs, relieves congestion and helps to relieve muscle tension and joint pain.  It also is used for arthritic and rheumatic pains and pains of trauma and injury (although it should not be applied directly to open wounds).  It is used as a smelling salt and given internally in small amounts to revive a patient from delirium or coma.  A piece of camphor attached to children’s underclothing will help to protect them from contagious diseases.  As an incense it purifies the air.   Small doses act to stimulate respiration; large doses can be toxic by stopping respiration.  Doctors have disagreed as to whether camphor will stop heart fibrillation, and whether it is a heart stimulant, as is widely believed in Europe. Camphor is used in Ayurveda locally, to numb the peripheral sensory nerves and as a counterirritant in rheumatisms and sprains and inflammatory conditions. In Latin America, a solution of camphor in wine used as a liniment if a folk remedy for tumors.  In Mexico, a mix of camphor and olive oil is popular for treating bruises and neuralgia. 

Canada Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis): Canadian hemlock was commonly employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints. It is still sometimes used in modern herbalism where it is valued for its astringent and antiseptic properties.  A decoction of the bark is used in the treatment of diarrhea, colitis, diverticulitis and cystitis. Externally, it is used as a poultice to cleanse and tighten bleeding wounds, as a douche to treat excessive vaginal discharge, thrush and a prolapsed uterus, and as a mouthwash and gargle for gingivitis and sore throats. The poultice has also been applied to the armpits to treat itchiness there.  The inner bark is diaphoretic and styptic. An infusion is used in the treatment of colds and abdominal pains. A decoction of the inner bark has been applied externally in the treatment of eczema and other skin conditions. The pulverized inner bark has been applied to cuts and wounds to stop the bleeding. A tea made from the leafy twig tips is used in the treatment of dysentery, kidney ailments, colds and rheumatism. Externally, it is used in steam baths for treating colds, rheumatism and to induce sweating. A decoction of the branches has been boiled down to a syrup or thick paste and used as a poultice on arthritic joints. A poultice of the crushed branch tips has been used to treat infections on an infants navel.  Hemlock pitch has been used externally as a counter-irritant in the treatment of rheumatism.

Canada Violet (Viola canadensis): A tea made from the roots has been used in the treatment of pain in the bladder region.  The roots and leaves have traditionally been used to induce vomiting, they have also been poulticed and applied to skin abrasions and boils.

Canadian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinum): Indian hemp is an unpleasantly bitter stimulant irritant herb that acts on the heart, respiratory and urinary systems, and also on the uterus. It was much employed by various native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a wide variety of complaints including rheumatism, coughs, pox, whooping cough, asthma, internal parasites, diarrhea and also to increase milk flow in lactating mothers. The fresh root is the most active part medicinally. It has been used in the treatment of syphilis and as a tonic. A weak tea made from the dried root has been used for cardiac diseases.  A tea made from the root has been used as a vermifuge.  The milky sap is a folk remedy for venereal warts.  It is favored for the treatment of amenorrhea and leucorrhea.  It is also of value for its diaphoretic and emetic properties.  A half-ounce of crushed root was boiled in a pint of water and one or two ounces of the decoction administered several times a day as a laxative.  The powered root was used to induce vomiting.  The entire plant, steeped in water, was used to treat intestinal worms, fever, dysentery, asthma, pneumonia, inflammation of the intestines, and indigestion.  The plant is considered a heart stimulant. 
            This plant causes large and liquid stools, accompanied by but little griping; acts with more or less freedom upon the kidneys; and in large doses produces much nausea, and rather copious vomiting. Emesis from its use is followed by rather free perspiration, as is to be expected from any emetic; though this agent also acts considerably upon the surface. The pulse becomes softer and fuller under its use; and it is accused of producing drowsiness and a semi-narcotism.  It has been most used for its effects as a hydrogogue cathartic and diuretic in dropsies; but should be employed only in moderation, and in connection with tonics and diffusive stimulants. It usually increases the menstrual flow, and some have lately attributed decided antiperiodic properties to it, but this is not yet satisfactorily confirmed. An ounce of the root boiled a few minutes in a pint of water, is the better mode of preparing it; and from one to two fluid ounces of this are a laxative dose. An extract is made, of which the dose is from three to six grains.

Canadian Sweetgale (Comptonia peregrina): The leaves were boiled by Indians to make a poultice that was tied to the cheek to relieve toothache.  A decoction of the plant was used to treat diarrhea, rheumatism, colic, and weakness following fever.  A tea made from the leaves and flowering tops is used as a remedy for diarrhea, headache, fevers, catarrh, vomiting of blood, rheumatism etc. The infusion has also been used to treat ringworm. The leaves have also been used as a poultice for toothaches, sprains etc.  A cold water infusion of the leaves has been used externally to counter the effect of poison ivy and to bathe stings, minor hemorrhages etc.  The leaves are harvested in early summer and dried for later use.

Canaigre (Rumex hymenosepalus): The use of cañaigre root in folk medicine has been as an astringent, prepared as a tea for diarrhea and as a garble for sore throat.  These uses are probably effective, owing to the plant’s high tannin content.  Herbalists have traditionally relied upon cañaigre as an astringent.  They used its large tuberous roots to make a tea for treating diarrhea and a gargle for easing sore throat.  One herbal suggests using the boiled root extract to stop bleeding from minor scrapes and cuts.  For sunburn, the root can be grated fresh on the burned skin, allowed to dry and a poultice of the inner pith of the cactus placed over or the juice rubbed in.  An infusion of the stems and leaves has been used as a wash for sores, ant bites and infected cuts.  The root has been chewed in the treatment of coughs and colds. The dried, powdered roots have been used as a dusting powder and dressing on burns and sores. A tea made from this plant is used to treat colds. The dried root combined with water is used as a mouthwash for pyorrhea and gum inflammations.  Sucking on a slice tightens the teeth.  The tea is used as a wash for acne and other moist or greasy skin problems. 

Cancer Bush (Sutherlandia frutescens)  It was introduced to the colonists in the early days by the Khoikhoi. It is a long respected and used in medicine. It has been used ever since as a remedy for a variety of ailments. If one cup of leaves steeped is added in 1 litre of boiling water, it will be good for washing wounds and 0.25 to 0.5 cup of this brew sipped every half hour is an old-fashioned remedy used to bring down fevers, treat chicken pox, and to treat internal cancers. Among the Khoi and the Nama people, the plant is used as a bitter tonic and a general panacea.  They used extracts externally to wash wounds and internally to relieve fever.  Recent studies have identified the presence of high concentrations of amino acids in this plant, including canavanine.  The tea of the dried leaves and twigs has been used for treating stomach problems and internal cancers. 
It was used as an eyewash in the treatment of eye troubles. Many of the farmers in the Cape say that their workers still use cancer bush to treat eye and ailments today. It can help in liver ailments, hemorrhoids, bladder, uterus, female complaints, for diarrhea, stomach ailments and for backache. Many people use cancer bush as a tonic and believe that a little taken before meals will aid digestion and improve the appetite.  The cancer bush is a traditional remedy for the relief of stomach problems and internal cancers. It is said to be a useful bitter tonic and a good general medicine. The virtues of the plant also extend to include relieving the symptoms of colds, influenza, chicken pox, diabetes, varicose veins, piles, inflammation, liver problems, backache and rheumatism. Source: Crimson Sage

Cancer Bush (Acalypha arvensis)  The common name hierba del cancer stems not from the ability of the plant to fight cancer but rather because of the local use of the word cancer to mean an open sore.  The plant is used as a remedy in Belize for a variety of serious skin conditions such as fungus, ulcers, ringworm and itching or burning labia in women.  It is used throughout Latin America as a diuretic. The leaves are used in Guatemala not only as a diuretic but also to treat kidney-related problems.  In Haiti  it is used to treat diarrhea, inflammations and dyspepsia.    In a study of plants used in Guatemala as a diuretic and for the treatment of urinary ailments, extracts of the plant were shown to increase urinary output by 52%.  A dried leaf tincture has been shown to be active against Staphylococcus aureus but inactive against some other bacteria. 
             Excellent remedy to wash skin conditions of the worst kind such as chronic rashes, blisters, peeling skin, deep sores, ulcers, fungus, ringworm, inflammation, itching and burning of labia in women – boil one entire plant in one quart water for 10 minutes; strain and wash area with very hot water 3 times daily.  Leaves may be dried and toasted and passed through a screen to make a powder to sprinkle on sores, skin infections, or boils. For stomach complaints or urinary infections, boil one entire plant in 3 cups water for 5 minutes; drink 3 cups of warm decoction 3 times a day (1 cup before each meal).  The local use of the word “cancer” refers to a type of open sore.  A dried leaf tincture was shown to have in vitro activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

Cancerillo (Asclepias curassavica): The plant is used medicinally in the tropics for the anodyne properties of its roots. It has also been used in scrofula with great success.  Used as a remedy for cancers, warts and similar growths.  Extract of the root is used in Suriname’s traditional medicine as an emetic and laxative. Other uses employed are against warts, fever, vomiting and as an expectorant.            Root extracts of cancerillo are widely used in South America an emetic (induces vomiting) and laxative. The leaves and flowers of the plant are considered toxic and reports of smaller grazing animals dying from consumption of the leaves have been reported. In the Suriname rainforest, an extract of the root is used an emetic, expectorant, and laxative and employed for warts, fever, and to induce vomiting. A decoction of the entire plant is used as an abortifacient. The roots are commonly known as "pleurisy root" and used as an expectorant for pneumonia and pleurisy and other lung problems. In Jamaica, a poultice of the root is used to treat ringworm and to stop bleeding. The Caribs considered the root to be good medicine to reduce fevers, and in Africa it has been used for intestinal troubles with children.                
            In Western Canada and the USA, the milky sap of the stems have been used to treat warts and skin parasites, and the roots are prepared in decoctions for constipation, venereal disease, kidney stones, asthma, and cancer. In the 1880's, Native Americans used the plant as a contraceptive and snakebite remedy. In Ayurvedic herbal medicine systems the plant is considered diaphoretic, anthelmintic, purgative, and emetic; it is employed in India for stomach tumors, piles, gonorrhea, intestinal parasites, fever, and warts.

Candlenut Oil Tree (Aleurites moluccana) -- Several parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in most of the areas where it is native. The oil is an irritant and purgative and sometimes used like castor oil.  The seed kernels have a laxative effect. In Japan its bark has been used on tumors.  In Sumatra, , pounded seeds, burned with charcoal, are applied around the navel for costiveness.  In Malaya, the pulped kernels or boiled leaves are used in poultices for headache, fevers, ulcers, swollen joints, and gonorrhea.  In Java, the bark is used for bloody diarrhea or dysentery.  In Sumatra, pounded seeds, burned with charcoal, are applied around the navel for cositiveness. Bark juice with coconut milk is used for sprue.  The fruit is eaten to produce aphrodisiac stimulation and the gum from the bark is chewed for the same reason.  The oil is sometimes used medicinally similar to castor oil, as well as a laxative. In Southeast Asia, the oil is sometimes applied topically to treat headaches, fevers and swollen joints.  To treat sores or infections in the mouth and to soothe the gums of teething babies, healers pick green kukui nuts in the morning when the sap is running.  They separate the stem from the husk of the nut, and a small pool of sap fills the resulting hole.  They apply the sap topically on sores or mix it with water to make a mouthwash.  Its partly dried sap is used to treat thrush (ea) and its leaves are used as poultice for swellings and infections.

Candytuft (Iberis amara): All parts of the plant, especially seeds, are used. Considered effective against gout, rheumatism and often relieves deep water retention or dropsy.  Rarely used in herbal medicine today until recently, it is a bitter-tasting tonic, aiding digestion and relieving gas and bloating.  Now the source of Iberogast® used in digestive formulas.

Cangzhu (Atractylodes lancea) This plant is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The root is a bitter-sweet tonic herb that acts mainly upon the digestive system. The root is the active part. It is often used in conjunction with other herbs such as Codonopsis tangshen and Glycyrrhiza uralensis. It is used in the treatment of digestive disorders, rheumatoid arthritis and night blindness.  The Chinese herb cangzhu dominates two formulas widely prescribed in China for male infertility. One, called hochu-ekki-to, contains 4 grams each of cangzhu, ginseng; 3 grams of Japanese angelica; 2 grams each of bupleurum root, jujube fruit, citrus unshiu peel (a Japanese citrus fruit); 1.5 grams of Chinese black cohosh; and 0.5 gram of ginger, licorice.  Lowers blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Inhibits cyclo-oxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase, the enzymes that manufacture inflammatory prostaglandins and leukotrienes, respectively.

Canker Violet (Viola rostrata): Said to be useful in pectoral and cutaneous diseases; also in syphilis

Canker Weed (Nabalus serpentarius): Useful as a mouthwash or gargle.  The plant is said to be an antidote for snake bites.   Used in homeopathy.

Cankerroot (Coptis groenlandica or C. greenlandica)  The roots and rhizomes of cankerroot chewed raw or boiled, have been used to treat canker sores, fever blisters, and other mouth irritations and to treat indigestion and sore throats.  A medicinal brew from the roots has been used as an eyewash.  The effectiveness of all these uses is due to the presence of the alkaloid berberine, a mild sedative, in the plant.  A decoction of equal parts of cankerroot and goldenseal has acquired the reputation of eliminating the craving for alcoholic beverages.

Canchalagua (Erythraea chilensis): May be used as an infusion in dyspepsia and digestive complaints

Cancrosa (Maytenus ilicifolia): the leaves of the plant are brewed into a tea for the treatment of ulcers, indigestion, chronic gastritis, and dyspepsia and is considered to be a good antacid. The leaf tea is also applied topically to wounds, rashes, and skin cancer. 

Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana): In Colombia, the leaf decoction is taken as a diuretic and antiasthmatic. In South Africa, the heated leaves are applied as poultices on inflammations and the Zulus administer the leaf infusion as an enema to relieve abdominal ailments in children.

Capers (Capparis spinosa)  The unopened flower buds are laxative and, if prepared correctly with vinegar, are thought to ease stomach pain.  The bark is bitter and diuretic, and can be taken immediately before meals to increase the appetite.  The root bark is purifying and stops internal bleeding.  It is used to treat skin conditions, capillary weakness, and easy bruising, and is also used in cosmetic preparations.  A decoction of the plant is used to treat yeast and vaginal infections such as candidiasis. Capers are an appetizer and digestive.  Since ancient times, caper poultices have been used to ease swellings and bruises and this led to the belief that rutin had properties affecting the permeability of the blood capillaries; such as reducing their fragility though clinical evidence is inconclusive

Caper Spurge (Euphorbia lathyrus)  Caper spurge is so violent a purgative that it is rarely if ever used in contemporary herbal medicine.  Caper spurge seeds were commonly employed, but an oil extracted from them was also used in very small doses (the oil is highly toxic).  In the past, the milky latex of caper spurge was used as a depilatory and to remove corns and warts, but is too irritant to be used safely. 

Caraway (Carum carvi):
Caraway water is well known for its carminative effect, particularly for babies.  This property of the seeds has been known and used from ancient times until today.  Caraway is also used as a flavoring for children’s medicines.  It is a good digestive and stomachic.  Other properties it is believed to have are: antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, appetitive, emmenagogic, expectorant and galactagogic (stimulates the secretion of bile).   It was used in cases of dyspepsia, diarrhoea and even hysteria.   Dioscorides is quoted as recommending pallid girls to take a tonic of caraway oil.  Modern researchers have discovered that two chemicals (carvol and carvene) in caraway seeds soothe the smooth muscle tissue of the digestive tract and help expel gas.  Antispasmodic, which appear to be present in caraway, soothe not only the digestive tract but other smooth muscles, such as the uterus, as well.  Thus, caraway might relax the uterus, not stimulate it.  Women may try it for relief of menstrual cramps.  For a pleasant-tasting infusion that might help aid digestion, relieve gas or menstrual cramping, use 2-3 teaspoons of bruised or crushed seeds per cup of boiling water. Steep 10-20 minutes.  Drink up to 3 cups a day.  If you prefer a tincture, take ½-1 teaspoon up to three times a day.  Low-strength caraway infusions may be given to infants for colic and gas. Source: Crimson Sage

Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum): : Its digestive properties have made it popular as an after-dinner infusion, and it acts as a breath freshener when chewed.  It is used in India for many conditions, including asthma, bronchitis, kidney stones, anorexia, debility and weakened Vata.  The herb has a long-lasting reputation as an aphrodisiac.  Cardamom treats gastralgia, enuresis (involuntary urination), warming, antimucus stimulant to add to lung tonics.  
          Cardamom is very high in cineole, a potent expectorant compound and a central nervous system stimulant.  In cases of emphysema, add a teaspoon or two of powdered cardamom to fruit juice or tea.
           In Chinese medicine it:  1) increases the Qi and replenishes deficiency; restores the lungs, spleen and nerve and generates strength; lifts the spirit and rids depression; 2) Warms and invigorates the stomach and intestines; frees spasms and dries mucous damp; awakens the appetite, settles the stomach and quells vomiting; 3) Stimulates the lungs, expels phlegm and clears the head; 4) antidotes poison and resolves contusion. Source: Crimson Sage

Cardamom, Round (Alpinia nutans)  In Asian medicinal practices, the cardamom fruit are used to expel gas, prevent vomiting and stimulate stomach secretions.  

Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis): A tea made from the roots has been used in the treatment of epilepsy, syphilis, typhoid, stomach aches, cramps, worms etc. A poultice of the roots has been applied to sores that are hard to heal.  The leaves are analgesic and febrifuge. A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of croup, nosebleeds, colds, fevers, headaches etc. A poultice of the leaves has been applied to the head to relieve the pain of headaches.  This species is considered to have similar medicinal activity to L. inflata, but in a milder form. Source: Crimson Sage


Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus): The cardoon has become important as a medicinal herb in recent years following the discovery of cynarin. This bitter-tasting compound, which is found in the leaves, improves liver and gall bladder function, stimulates the secretion of digestive juices, especially bile, and lowers blood cholesterol levels.  The leaves  are used internally in the treatment of chronic liver and gall bladder diseases, jaundice, hepatitis, arteriosclerosis and the early stages of late-onset diabetes.

Carline Thistle (Carlina acaulis )  Internally for fluid retention, liver, gall bladder, and prostate problems, bronchitis, and skin complaints, such as acne and eczema.  It is used in the form of an infusion to treat stomach and liver disorders, edema and urine retention.  Decoctions are applied externally to bathe skin disorders, fungal infections and wounds and are used as an antiseptic gargle.  The dried and chopped roots, soaked in wine, stimulate digestion and soothe the nerves.  Wine extract of 40-50 g of powdered roots/1 litre wine acts as a vermifuge.  Take a wine glass twice daily.  A water extract produces the same effect in 50/50 mixture with vinegar.  Swedish bitters contains the root of the carline thistle, which possesses bacteriostatic properties and acts on the stomach as well. The root is antibiotic, antispasmodic, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, mildly diuretic, emetic in large doses, febrifuge and purgative in large doses.  The plant was at one time in great demand as an aphrodisiac, it is used nowadays in the treatment of spasms of the digestive tract, gall bladder disorders, dropsy etc.

Carob (Ceratonia siliqua): Carob pods are nutritious and, due to their high sugar content, sweet-tasting and mildly laxative.  However, a decoction of the pulp is also antidiarrheal, gently helping to cleanse and relieve irritation within the gut.  It arrests vomiting in infants.  These appear to be contradictory effects, but carob is an example of how the body responds to herbal medicines in different ways, according to how the herb is prepared and according to the specific medical problem.  The bark is strongly astringent and a decoction of it is taken to treat diarrhea. 

Caroba (Jacaranda procera): Chiefly used by the natives, who prize it highly as a diaphoretic and diuretic.  It is also a safe sedative. The value of the Jacaranda active principles has been proved in syphilis and venereal diseases, being widely used by the aborigines of Brazil and other South American countries. The leaves have also been tried in epilepsy for their soothing influence. It is recommended for those of feeble mentality though well-nourished in body, with voracious appetite and addicted to masturbation. Carob Syrups are reputed to relieve stomach pains and constipation

Carolina Allspice (Calycanthus floridus): Cherokee tribes brewed the roots and bark as teas to soothe a variety of ills, and European settlers later drank similar teas to soothe jangled nerves.  The plant contains an alkaloid that has a powerfully depressant action on the heart. A fluid extract has been used as an antiperiodic.  A tea made from the root or bark has been used as a strong emetic and diuretic for kidney and bladder ailments. A cold tea has been used as eye drops in the treatment of failing eyesight.  An ooze from the bark has been used to treat children's sores, whilst an infusion has been used to treat hives.

Carpenter's Square (Scrophularia marilandica): A tea made from the roots has been used in the treatment of irregular menses, fevers and piles.  An infusion of the fresh roots in water was used in the 1800’s to treat anxiety, restlessness and insomnia in pregnant women.  A poultice was used to treat skin diseases such as impetigo and cradle cap.  The entire plant was used as a tonic, to break a fever by increasing perspiration, to increase urine flow, and to cure intestinal worms.  The bark of the plant and the roots were used as treatments for tuberculosis, scabies, and open wounds.  The plant was used at various times to increase menstrual flow and treat hemorrhoids.  A poultice made from the roots is a folk remedy for cancer. Carpenter's square is said to have similar properties to the knotted figwort, S. nodosa: supports detoxification of the body and it may be used as a treatment for various kinds of skin disorders.

Carpet Weed (Mollugo verticillata): In experiments with mice,  Nitric oxide (NO) release was evaluated in mice peritoneal cell cultures treated in vivo using the ethanolic extract of M. verticillata with and without BCG. The plant extract showed immunostimulatory activity when peritoneal cells were stimulated in vitro with BCG antigen only. However, mice peritoneal cells treated with M. verticillata plus BCG showed a drastic reduction in NO production when they received the additional stimulus in vitro with BCG. Ethanolic extracts of M. verticillata could directly increase NO release by peritoneal cells, but suppress the immune response of these cells when treated with BCG antigen and Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole antigen (TB). Preliminary phytochemical tests allowed the detection of quercetin and triterpenoid glycosides in the ethanolic extract of M. verticillata, and those compounds are probably responsible for the effect of this plant material on the immune system.

Carragheen Moss (Gigartina stellataBecause of its mucus forming properties, carrageenan has been used in lung diseases and to improve bitter drug taste. Carrageenan has also been used in cases of digestive tract irritations and in diarrhea and dysentery. In France and Great Britain, carrageenan has been used to treat stomach ulcers due to its mucous properties. When used against ulcers, the body has no necessity to gastrointestinally absorb carrageenan, so that carrageenan acts directly on the mucous surface. Codfish liver oil emulsions have been prepared with carrageenans. Cotton-wood soaked in carrageenan decoction has been used as cataplasm.
            Medicinally it is useful in chest and bronchial infections, as well as in the treatment of stomach ulcers and diseases of the bladder and kidneys.  A syrup to combat coughs and colds can be made by adding ¼ cup of rinsed carragheen moss and the thinly pared rind and juice of 2 lemons to 6 cups of water.  Boil the mixture for 10 minutes, add a dessertspoonful of honey and simmer for a further 10 minutes before straining.  Serve the syrup hot or cold. 

Carrion Flower (Smilax herbacea)  Eating the fruit is said to be effective in treating hoarseness.  The parched and powdered leaves havebeen used as a dressing on burns. The wilted leaves have been used as a dressing on boils. The root is analgesic. A decoction has been used in the treatment of back pains, stomach complaints, lung disorders and kidney problems.

Carrot, Wild (Daucus carota): This vegetable is a wonderful cleansing medicine.  It supports the liver, and stimulates urine flow and the removal of waste by the kidneys.  The juice of organically grown carrots is a delicious drink and a valuable detoxifier.  Carrots are rich in carotene, which is converted to vitamin A by the liver.  This nutrient acts to improve night blindness as well as vision in general.  The raw root, grated or mashed, is a safe treatment for threadworms, especially in children.  Wild carrot leaves are a good diuretic.  They have been used to counter cystitis and kidney stone formation, and to diminish stones that have already formed.  The seeds are also diuretic and carminative. They stimulate menstruation and have been used in folk medicine as a treatment for hangovers.  Both leaves and seeds relieve flatulence and gassy colic and are a useful remedy for settling the digestion and upsets of the stomach.  Many Pennsylvania Dutch have used wild carrot seed as both an emmenagogue and a morning-after contraceptive.  Indian researchers have confirmed that carrot seed has anti-implantation activity in laboratory animals.  One teaspoonful of the seeds is taken daily starting at the time of ovulation or immediately after unprotected intercourse during the fertile time and continued for up to one week to prevent pregnancy.  Carrots contain 8 compounds that lower blood pressure.  Scottish studies showed that over a period of three weeks, a daily snack of two carrots lowered cholesterol levels by 10-20% in study participants.  Because the fiber pectin is the source of most of these benefits, don’t use a juicer which extracts most of the fiber. 
Scientists in India have discovered that carrots afford significant protection for the liver in laboratory animals.  When liver cell injury was induced experimentally with chemicals, paralleling the liver damage inflicted by chemical pollutants, experiments showed that lab animals could recover with the help of carrot extracts which increase the activity of several enzymes that speed up detoxification of the liver and other organs.

Cascara sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana )   Cascara is a very effective laxative, containing hydroxymethyl anthraquinones that cause peristalsis of the large intestine, emodin and other rhamnoid glycosides. It has been used as such by many First Nations groups. For example, Cascara bark tea was drunk as a laxative by Nuxalk, Coast Salish, Nuu-chah-hulth, and Kwakwaka’wakw, and a decoction of the inner bark and water was used as a remedy for dysentery. The bark is often aged before use so it will be less likely to cause nausea. First introduced to Europe in 1877, about 3 million pounds of the bark is harvested annually for use in commercial laxatives.  Squaxin used a Cascara infusion to wash sores--sometimes people chewed the bark and then spit it on sores. The bark has also been used to treat heart strain, internal strains, and biliousness. Skagit people burn the bark and mix the charcoal with grease to rub on swellings, and also have employed the bark in a green dye for mountain goat wool. Makah eat the fresh berries in July and August. Internally used for chronic constipation, colitis, digestive complaints, hemorrhoids, liver problems, and jaundice.  It is a medium-strength laxative and somewhat weaker than Rhubarb root and Senna leaf.   Externally used to deter nail biting.  Source: Crimson Sage

Cascarilla (Croton eleuteria):
An aromatic, bitter tonic, with possibly narcotic properties. It is used in dyspepsia, intermittent and low fevers, diarrhea and dysentery. It is a stimulant to mucous membranes, and in chronic bronchitis is used as an expectorant; while it is valuable in atonia dyspepsia, flatulence, chronic diarrhea, nocturnal pollutions, debility and convalescence. Added to cinchona, it will arrest vomiting caused by that drug.

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale): The nut is highly nutritious, containing 45% fat and 20% protein.  The leaves are used in Indian and African herbal medicine for toothache and gum problems, and in West Africa for malaria.  The bark is used in Ayurvedic medicine to detoxify snake bite.  The roots are purgative.  The gum is used externally for leprosy, corns, and fungal conditions. The oil between the outer and inner shells of the nut is caustic and causes an inflammatory reaction even in small doses.  The fruit bark juice and the nut oil are both said to be folk remedies for calluses, corns, and warts, cancerous ulcers, and even elephantiasis. Anacardol and anacardic acid have shown some activity against Walker carcinosarcoma 256. Decoction of the astringent bark is given for severe diarrhea and thrush. Old leaves are applied to skin afflictions and burns (tannin applied to burns is liepatocarcinogenic). Oily substance from pericarp is used for cracks on the feet. Cuna Indians used the bark in herb teas for asthma, cold, and congestion. The seed oil is believed to be alexeritic and amebicidal; used to treat gingivitis, malaria, and syphilitic ulcers. Ayurvedic medicine recommends the fruit for anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, ascites, dysentery, fever, inappetence, leucoderma, piles, tumors, and obstinate ulcers. In the Gold Coast, the bark and leaves are used for sore gums and toothache. Juice of the fruit is used for hemoptysis. Sap discutient, fungicidal, repellent. Leaf decoction gargled for sore throat. Cubans use the resin for cold treatments. The plant exhibits hypoglycemic activity. In Malaya, the bark decoction is used for diarrhea. In Indonesia, older leaves are poulticed onto burns and skin diseases. Juice from the apple is used to treat quinsy in Indonesia, dysentery in the Philippines.  In Venezuela, a decoction of the cashew leaf is used to treat diarrhea and is believed to be a treatment for diabetes.  Pulverized cashew tree bark, soaked in water for 24 hours is also reported to be used in Colombia for diabetes.   Peruvians have used a tea of the cashew tree leaf as a treatment for diarrhea, while a tea from the bark has been used as a vaginal douche.  Leaf infusions have been used to treat toothache and sore throat and as a febrifuge.

Cassandra (Chamaedaphne calyculata): A poultice of the leaves has been applied to inflammations.  An infusion of the leaves has been used to treat fevers.

Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia): It is used medicinally in much the same way as Ceylon cinnamon, mainly for digestive complaints such as flatulent dyspepsia, colic, diarrhea and nausea, as well as the common cold, rheumatism, kidney and reproductive complaints.  In Chinese medicine it is used particularly for vascular disorders.  A great deal of research has been carried out in recent years regarding the pharmacological actions of cassia. Warms the Kidneys and fortifies the yang: for a wide variety of problems due to insufficiency of Kidney yang and waning of the gate of vitality.  Usually taken as a powder, pill or  tincture.  Rarely decocted because this causes the loss of the volatile oils which carry much of its effect.   

Cassia Poda (Cassia fistula): The plants are used in folk remedies for tumors of the abdomen, glands, liver, stomach, and throat, cancer, carcinomata, and impostumes of the uterus. Reported to be aperient, astringent, laxative, purgative, and vermifuge, Indian laburnum is a folk remedy for burns, cancer, constipation, convulsions, delirium, diarrhea, dysuria, epilepsy, gravel, hematuria, pimples, and glandular tumors. Yunani use the leaves for inflammation, the flowers for a purgative, the fruit as antiinflammatory, antipyretic, abortifacient, demulcent, purgative, refrigerant, good for chest complaints, eye ailments, flu, heart and liver ailments, and rheumatism, though suspected of inducing asthma. Seeds are considered emetic. Konkanese use the juice to alleviate ringworm and blisters caused by the marking nut, a relative of poison ivy. Leaf poultices are applied to chilblains and also used in facial massage for brain afflictions, and applied externally for paralysis and rheumatism, also for gout. Rhodesians use the pulp for anthrax, blood poisoning, blackwater fever, dysentery, and malaria. Gold Coast natives use the pulp from around the seed as a safe and useful purgative. Throughout the Far East, the uncooked pulp of the pods is a popular remedy for constipation, thought to be good for the kidneys "as those who use it much remain free of kidney stones.  A decoction of the root bark is recommended for cleansing wounds. In the West Indies, the pulp and/or leaves are poulticed onto inflamed viscera, e.g. the liver. The bark and leaves are used for skin diseases: flowers used for fever, root as a diuretic, febrifuge; for gout and rheumatism.
               Ayurvedic medicine describes the fresh sweet pulp enclosing the labornum’s seed pods as an effective remedy for colic, while the matured pulp is used to make a gentle laxative, safe for children and pregnant women. The seed is recognized as antibilious, aperitif, carminative, and laxative.  Externally, the bark and leaves are ground into a paste for chronic skin infections.  Distillations from the flowers, and decoctions made from the powdered root are given for heart diseases to enlarge the capillaries in the circulatory system.  In clinical tests, its leaves, stem bark, and fruit pulp were all found to have antibacterial properties.  The root showed antifungal activity and used for adenopathy, burning sensations, leprosy, skin diseases, syphilis, and tubercular glands, The essential oils extracted from various parts of the tree showed antiviral properties.  The leaves were used for erysipelas, malaria, rheumatism, and ulcers, the buds for biliousness, constipation, fever, leprosy, and skin disease, the fruit for abdominal pain, constipation, fever, heart disease, and leprosy. It is used in a gentle, fruit-flavored laxative, usually put up with other laxatives as a compound
            In 1998 researchers in India began to focus on the use of cassia pods to protect the liver.  In a study, rats given an extract of he leaf suffered less liver damage from a dose of carbon tetrachloride than rats that did not receive the extract.  The effect of cassia to reduce the damage was similar to what was observed I the use of commercially prepared drugs prescribed to treat liver problems, according to the study.

Castor Oil Plant (Ricinus communis): Regarded as the best of all laxatives (and in higher doses a purgative) and especially favored for children and the aged.  It prompts a bowel movement about 3-5 hours after ingestion.  The oil is so effective that it is regularly used to clear the digestive tract in cases of poisoning.  It should not be used in cases of chronic constipation, where it might deal with the symptoms but does not treat the cause. The flavor is somewhat unpleasant, however, and it can cause nausea in some people. It is also used externally for itch and ringworm. Externally, a castor oil fomentation is rubbed over the liver and other areas of the abdomen.  A thick towel that has been rung out in ginger tea is then applied over the entire abdomen and a heating pad or hot water bottle is placed over the liver.  This will help draw toxins into and through the liver.  This treatment is excellent for liver disorders, cysts, growths, warts and other excrescenses.  The oil has a remarkable antidandruff effect. The oil is well-tolerated by the skin and so is sometimes used as a vehicle for medicinal and cosmetic preparations.  Castor oil congeals to a gel-mass when the alcoholic solution is distilled in the presence of sodium salts of higher fatty acids. This gel is useful in the treatment of dermatosis and is a good protective in cases of occupational eczemas and dermatitis.  It is rubbed on the temple to treat headache and is also powdered and applied to abscesses and various skin infections. The seed is used in Tibetan medicine, where it is considered to have an acrid, bitter and sweet taste with a heating potency. It is used in the treatment of indigestion and as a purgative.  A decoction of the leaves and roots is antitussive, discutient and expectorant. The leaves are used as a poultice to relieve headaches and treat boils.
           In India, the oil is massaged into the breasts after childbirth to stimulate milk flow.  The leaves of the castor plant are warmed and applied to a woman’s breast to increase lactation and the leaf also provides Ayurvedic doctors with one of the ingredients used in a mixture which is drunk by a woman to increase milk flow. Indian herbalists use a poultice of castor oil seeds to relieve swollen and tender joints in treating lumbago, sciatica and rheumatism.  This entered the Arab pharmacopoeia, where castor was called “the sesame of India.”  The oil is also used in the treatment of epilepsy, paralysis, insanity and many other nervous system disorders.  In China the crushed seeds are used to treat facial palsy.
            Boil 5 large leaves in 2 gallons water for 10 minutes to bathe children with measles (alleviates itching and prevents scarring). 

Cat Thyme (Teucrium marum): The plant is supposed to possess very active powers and has been recommended in the treatment of many diseases, being considered useful in most nervous complaints. It is used in the treatment of gallbladder and stomach problems,  the leaves being powdered and given in wine. The powdered leaves, either alone, or mixed with other ingredients of a like nature, when taken as snuff, have been recommended as excellent for 'disorders of the head,' under the name of compound powder of Assarabacca, but lavender flowers are now generally substituted for Cat Thyme.   The root bark is considerably astringent and has been used for checking hemorrhages.

Catarrh Root (Alpinia galangal): An aromatic stimulant.  Has been used as a snuff in catarrh and nervous headache.  It is used for nonulcer dyspepsia with flatulence and inflammations of the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory trace.  In traditional medicine it is also used as a tonic for low sexual drive and as an adjuvant for diabetes and hypertension.  Somewhat similar to ginger

Catgut (Tephrosia virginiana): At various times it was used to treat rheumatism, fevers, pulmonary problems, bladder disorders, coughing, hair loss, and reproductive disorders.  The root of this plant alone, or in combination with other agents, has been reputed a very efficient remedy in syphilis. The decoction is also much used as a vermifuge, and is said to be as efficient and powerful as spigelia. The plant is a mild, stimulating tonic, having a slight action on the bowels, and the secretive organs generally, and applicable in the treatment of many diseases, especially in a certain stage of typhoid fever, where there is little use of active medicine. The recommendation was a  compound fluid extract of tephrosia: Take of Tephrosia virginiana (the plant), 8 ounces; Rumex acutus (dock), 2 ounces; water, 4 quarts. Place the plants in the water, and boil until reduced to 1 quart. Strain, and when intended to be kept, mix with an equal bulk of brandy or diluted alcohol, and half its weight of sugar, macerate for several days, and strain through muslin. The dose is from 1/2 to 1 fluid ounce, 2, 3, or 4 times a day A tea made from the roots is said to make children muscular and strong. A cold tea is used to improve male potency and also to treat TB, bladder problems, coughs, irregular menstruation and other women's complaints. Experimentally, the root has shown both anticancer and cancer-causing activity. The leaves have been placed in the shoes in order to treat fevers and rheumatism.

Catmint (Nepeta sibthorpii): Several species of Nepeta genus are utilized in folk medicine for treatment of contusions, rheumatic pains, fever, cutaneous eruptions. Some species are employed for their anti-inflammatory properties.

Catnip (Nepata cataria): Catnip has long been used medicinally as a tea, juice, tincture, infusion and poultice.  Catnip tea is used for headaches, stomachaches, colic and sleeplessness in children.  It has also been used to treat cancer, insanity, nervousness, nightmare, scurvy and tuberculosis, while a root extract served as a mild stimulant.  Drinking two cups of catnip tea a day could significantly reduce the likelihood of developing cataracts.  Catnip has been employed orally to treat colic, diarrhea, flatulence, hiccups, whooping cough, the common cold, measles and chicken pox (reduces the eruptions), asthma, yellow fever, scarlet fever, smallpox, jaundice and to induce parturition and encourage menstruation.  Poultices were used for hives, sore breasts of nursing mothers and to reduce swelling.  A poultice of catnip and other herbs was employed to treat aching teeth in the Ozark Mountains.  A tincture makes a good friction rub for rheumatic and arthritic joints and, as an ointment, to treats hemorrhoids.  Catnip was sometimes smoked to relieve respiratory ailments.   The fresh leaves can also be chewed for headache.  It’s an old home remedy for colds, nervous tension, fevers and nightmare.  It is diaphoretic and antispasmodic.    Fresh catnip leaves are preferred for infusion or tincture.   Source: Crimson Sage

Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa): Cat’s claw has a history of use going back to the time of the Incas, and it has been continuously used by indigenous peoples of South America for two thousand years.  Cat’s claw has been used by the Ashaninka Indians of Central Peru to treat asthma, urinary tract inflammation, arthritis, and rheumatism.  It has also been used by indigenous peoples to treat general inflammations and to treat wounds.  In addition, some Indian peoples in Colombia are reported to use it to treat gonorrhea and dysentery.  Reportedly, cat's claw has also been used as a contraceptive by several different tribes of Peru (but only in excessive dosages). Dr. Fernando Cabieses, M.D., a noted authority on Peruvian medicinal plants, explains in his book that the Asháninka boil 5 to 6 kilograms (about 12 pounds!) of the root in water until it is reduced to little more than 1 cup. This decoction is then taken 1 cup daily during the period of menstruation for three consecutive months, which supposedly causes sterility for three to four years.
               Worldwide research is being conducted exploring the use of cat’s claw in the treatment of cancer and AIDS.  The triterpenes in the herb boost T cell activity.  Peruvian doctors have been using it in the treatment of fourteen kinds of cancer, and at least two compounds have been isolated for use in controlling viruses. It has impressive anti-inflammatory properties, making it an excellent tonic for arthritis and fibromyalgia.  It promotes colonic health but may give some people diarrhea.  It is used for inflammatory and ulcerative conditions such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, colitis, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids, minor diarrhea.  The alkaloids in the herb appear to target the immune system, the intestinal tract, and the cardiovascular system most effectively.  It is a very powerful antioxidant.  Peruvian women use it to recover from childbirth.   Herbal extracts should be blended with the whole herb for greatest efficacy.  It can be combined with Pau d’Arco and Echinacea.
                   In herbal medicine today, cat's claw is employed around the world for many different conditions including immune disorders, gastritis, ulcers, cancer, arthritis, rheumatism, rheumatic disorders, neuralgias, chronic inflammation of all kinds, and such viral diseases as herpes zoster (shingles). Dr. Brent Davis, D.C., refers to cat's claw as the "opener of the way" for its ability to cleanse the entire intestinal tract and its effectiveness in treating stomach and bowel disorders (such as Crohn's disease, leaky bowel syndrome, ulcers, gastritis, diverticulitis, and other inflammatory conditions of the bowel, stomach, and intestines). .

Cattail (Typha angustifolia):  In Chinese herbal medicine, the astringent pu huang pollen has been employed chiefly to stop internal or external bleeding.  The dried pollen is said to be anticoagulant, but when roasted with charcoal it becomes hemostatic. The pollen may be mixed with honey and applied to wounds and sores, or taken orally to reduce internal bleeding of almost any kind—for example, nosebleeds, uterine bleeding, or blood in the urine.  The pollen is now also used in the treatment of angina.  Pu huang does not appear to have been used as a medicine in the European herbal tradition.  The dregs remaining after the pollen has been sifted from the stamens and sepals can be browned in an oven or hot skillet and then used as an internal or external astringent in dysentery and other forms of bowel hemorrhage.  It is used internally in the treatment of kidney stones, internal hemorrhage of almost any kind, painful menstruation, abnormal uterine bleeding, post-partum pains, abscesses and cancer of the lymphatic system. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women. Externally, it is used in the treatment of tapeworms, diarrhea and injuries.  An infusion of the root has been used in the treatment of gravel.

Catauba (Juniperus brasiliensis): The most famous of all Brazilian aphrodisiac plants, Catuaba has been appreciated by the local population for generations.  The Tupi Indians first discovered the qualities of the plant and composed many songs praising it.  The bark functions as a stimulant of the nervous system, above all when one deals with functional impotence of the male genital organs.  It is reported that after drinking 3-4 cups of tea steadily over a period of time the first symptoms are usually erotic dreams, and then increased sexual desire.   In the Brazilian state of Minas there is a saying, "Until a father reaches 60, the son is his; after that, the son is catuaba's!"   A bark decoction is commonly used for sexual impotency, agitation, nervousness, nerve pain and weakness, poor memory or forgetfulness, and sexual weakness. It is employed for many types of nervous conditions including insomnia, hypochondria, and pain related to the central nervous system (such as sciatica and neuralgia). In European herbal medicine catuaba is considered an aphrodisiac and a brain and nerve stimulant. A bark tea is used for sexual weakness, impotence, nervous debility, and exhaustion. Herbalists and health practitioners in the United States use catuaba in much the same way: as a tonic for genital function, as a central nervous system stimulant, for sexual impotence, general exhaustion and fatigue, insomnia related to hypertension, agitation, and poor memory.

Cayenne (Capsicum frutescens): Cayenne is the preferred species of Capsicum for medicinal use.  Those in climates that eat more hot peppers have les chronic obstructive lung disease than those on blander diets.  Externally, cayenne makes an excellent liniment for poor circulation, unbroken chilblains, sprains and painful joints.  Internally, small doses of cayenne stimulate the appetite and act as an internal cleanser.  Cayenne brings blood and body heat to the surface, stimulating sweating and cooling the body.  It regulates the blood flow, equalizing and strengthening the heart, arteries, capillaries and nerves.  It is a good tonic and is specific for the circulatory and digestive system.  It may be used in flatulent dyspepsia and colic. It is used for treating debility and for warding off colds. Eating hot peppers temporarily boosts the body’s metabolic rate by about 25%.  Cayenne acts as an energy stimulant, slightly encouraging the adrenals to produce cortisone.
           The dried fruit is a powerful local stimulant with no narcotic effect, it is most useful in atony of the intestines and stomach. It has proved efficacious in dilating blood vessels and thus relieving chronic congestion of people addicted to drink. It is sometimes used as a tonic and is said to be unequalled in warding off disease (probably due to the high vitamin C content). Used externally, it is a strong rubefacient stimulating the circulation, aiding the removal of waste products and increasing the flow of nutrients to the tissues. It is applied as a cataplasm or linament. It has also been powdered and placed inside socks as a traditional remedy for those prone to cold feet. These pungent fruited peppers are important in the tropics as gastrointestinal detoxicants and food preservatives. 
            Capsicin has been found to reduce “substance P,” a chemical that carries pain messages from nerve endings to the skin to the central nervous system.  Clinical trials showed that 75% of the people who applied a capsicin cream on their shingles disease experienced substantial pain relief with only an occasional burning sensation.  It is being investigated for use on other painful skin problems, such as diabetic nerve damage, psoriasis, and post surgical pain, and has been developed into Zostrix, an over-the-counter cream.  A small mount of cayenne stabilizes blood pressure and reduces excessive bleeding anywhere in the country.  The leaves have been used to treat toothache.
Source: Crimson Sage


Cebadilla (Swertia radiata): An infusion of the dried, powdered leaves, or the root, has been used in the treatment of diarrhea. A cooled decoction of the roots has been used in the treatment of asthma, colds, digestive complaints etc. An infusion of the plant has been used as a contraceptive.  Primarily a medicine for the digestive tract.  Similar to Gentian in its effect, it is more energetic and irritating.  A stimulant to stomach and small intestinal secretions and contractions, it makes a bitter tonic especially useful for the elderly. The dried root is powdered, 6-8 tablespoons added to a pint of brandy and it is steeped for at least a week; a tablespoon is taken before meals.  A pinch of the powder in sweetened water has a similar effect.  One-half to one teaspoon of the root powder boiled in water will act as a laxative-cathartic.  More than a teaspoon can act as an irritant to the large intestine, and in any respect, Cebadilla should be used as a laxative only occasionally.  The root can also serve as a fungicide for athlete’s foot and the like.  Sometimes effective as a tincture for ringworm, but care should be taken when used on children it can irritate the skin.  In New Mexico the powdered root is melted in lard and applied on the scalp to kill lice or rubbed on the legs to kill scabies. 

Cedar (Cedrus atlantica (Atlas cedar); Cedrus deodara (Himalayan cedar); Cedrus libani (cedar of Lebanon); Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)  

Cedarwood, Texas (Juniperus asheiIn New Mexico the Native Americans use cedarwood oil for skin rashes.  It is also used for arthritis and rheumatism

Celandine (Chelidonium majus) : Greater celandine acts as a mild sedative, relaxing the muscles of the bronchial tubes, intestines, and other organs.  In both Western and Chinese herbal traditions, it has been used to treat bronchitis, whooping cough and asthma.  The herb’s antispasmodic effect also extends to the gallbladder, where it helps to improve bile flow.  This would partly account for its use in treating jaundice, gallstones, and gallbladder pain, as well as its longstanding reputation as a detoxifying herb.  The tincture or infusion of the leaf will stimulate and clean the liver.  In one study, researchers gave tablets containing chelidonine to 60 people with symptoms of gallstones for six weeks.  Doctors reported a significant reduction in symptoms.  Greater celandine’s sedative action does not, however, extend to the uterus—it causes the muscles of this organ to contract.  Externally the salve has been used to clear eczema, scrofula and herpes.  The juice applied to the eyes will clear the vision, and applied to wounds will promote healing.   The fresh juice is dabbed two or three times a day on warts, ringworm and corns. (Do not allow it to touch other parts of the skin.)  The fresh juice mixed with milk is used to help remove cataracts and the white spots that form on the cornea.  An ointment of the roots and leaves boiled in oil or lard is an excellent treatment for hemorrhoids.  Only the dried herb should be taken internally.  The fluid extract is made with the fresh herb.   Ukrain, a derivate of celandine, is used for solid tumors such as breast, lung, and colon, as opposed to leukemia and myeloma, It can be beneficial even when used in combination with Taxol plus supporting the liver function. Source: Crimson Sage

Celandine, Lesser (
Ranunculus ficaria)
  Internally and externally used for hemorrhoids.  Externally also used for perineal damage after childbirth.  Combines well with plantain, marigold for agrimony for the internal treatment of piles.

Celery Seed (Apium graveolens dulce): : Until the 19th century the essential oils was recommended as a cure for rheumatism.  It is believed to be a tonic for asthma and herbalists use it to treat liver diseases, bronchitis, fever and flatulence. It is also recommended as a diuretic, tranquilizer, sedative and menstruation promoter and as treatment for gout, arthritis, obesity, anxiety and lack of appetite.  Celery seed tea is said to promote rest and sleep.  It is good for nervous disorders and enjoys aphrodisiac qualities.  India's traditional Ayurvedic physicians have prescribed celery seed as a diuretic and as a treatment for colds, flu, indigestion, arthritis and diseases of the liver and spleen.  Source: Crimson Sage

Centaury (Erythraea centaurium)    One of the most useful bitter herbs, centaury strengthens digestive function, especially within the stomach. It is a useful herb in dyspepsia and in any condition where a sluggish digestion is involved. By increasing stomach secretions, it hastens the breakdown of food.  It also stimulates the appetite and increases bile production.  Indicated in appetite loss (anorexia) when it is associated with liver weakness.  Centaury needs to be taken over some weeks.  The preparation should be slowly sipped so that the components can stimulate reflex activity throughout the upper digestive tract.  Combines well with Meadowsweet, Marshmallow Root and Chamomile in dyspepsia.  In anorexia it is indicated with burdock root and chamomile.  It serves as a blood purifier, working on the kidneys and liver.  Externally the juice applied to the eyes will clear the vision, and applied to wounds will help promote healing.  The decoction applied to the skin regularly will clear the skin of freckles and spots.  A decoction externally applied also will destroy ice and other parasites in the hair.  
Source: Crimson Sage

Centuary, American (Sabatia angularis)    This herb, which should be gathered when in full bloom, is an active tonic, of the more stimulating class, with moderate and somewhat diffusive relaxing qualities, allied to the American  gentian, but rather milder.   Its chief power is exerted upon the stomach, gall-ducts, and spleen; and the general circulation and uterus feel it moderately.  A warm infusion gently promotes the menstrual secretion, in cases of debility.   Cold preparations increase appetite and digestion in weak and flaccid conditions of the stomach, and may be used for chronic dyspepsia and general debility.  By maintaining the portal circulation somewhat vigorously,  it proves of eminent service for the intermediate treatment of agues; and though not a nervine stimulant and antiperiodic as cinchona is, it is of decided value against intermittents where the cinchona preparations (and similar antiperiodics) prove too exciting to the nerve centers.  In cases of this class, I have several times arrested ague paroxysms by the fluid extract of this plant alone, with suitable daily hepatics; yet it is not strong enough to meet the chills of deeply-prostrated or congested cases.   It makes an excellent tonic addendum to such agents as fraxinus, angustura, or euonymus, in treating chronic biliousness with indigestion; and may be used to advantage with caulophyllum, convallaria, and similar uterine remedies, in chronic prolapsus, leucorrhea, hysteria, etc.   Its sustaining influence is shown to excellent advantage in the treatment of night sweats, exhaustion from excessive purulent discharges, recovery from malignant scarlatina, and other prostrated conditions.  Some use it for worms, as a tonic.   Usually given by infusion, made by digesting an ounce of the herb in a pint of hot water; of which a fluid ounce may be given every two or three hours during the intermission of an ague, or half a fluid ounce every three hours as a tonic.

Century Plant (Agave americana):
leaves used medicinally by Indians of the Southwestern US.  Also a modern source of steroids.  A demulcent, laxative and antiseptic, agave sap is a soothing and restorative remedy for many digestive ailments. It is used to treat ulcers and inflammatory conditions affecting the stomach and intestines, protecting these parts from infection and irritation and encouraging healing. Agave has also been employed to treat a wide range of other conditions, including syphilis, tuberculosis, jaundice, and liver disease.  Agave sap has very soothing properties and can be used interchangeably with aloe vera on topical wounds and burns.  The sisal agave is a source of hecogenin, the substance that is the starting point in the production of corticosteroids.  Water in which agave fiber has been soaked for a day can be used as a scalp disinfectant and tonic in cases of falling hair.

Cerasee (Momordica charantia): Medicinally, the plant has a long history of uses by the indigenous people of the Amazon. The fruit juice and/or a leaf tea is employed for diabetes, colic, sores and wounds, infections, worms and parasites, as an emmenogogue, and for measles, hepatitis, and fevers. The unripe fruit is used mainly as a treatment for late-onset diabetes.  The ripe fruit is a stomach tonic and induces menstruation.  In Turkey, the fruit is employed to treat ulcers.  The fruit is much used in the West Indies as a cure-all for worms, urinary stones, and fever.  The juice of the fruit is used as a purgative.  It is also prescribed for colic and gas.  A decoction of the leaves is taken for liver problems and colitis, and may be applied to eruptive skin conditions.  The leaves are also used for fevers.  Externally the fruit is used for hemorrhoids, chapped skin and burns.  The seed oil is used on wounds. Cerasee seeds were investigated in China in the 1980s as a potential contraceptive.  Some research suggests that the plant may be harmful to the liver.  The fruit demonstrably lowers sugar levels in the blood and urine.  It is traditionally used by Ayurvedic doctors to treat anorexia, and to dissolve kidney stones resulting from dehydration during the Indian summer.  In the past, the vegetable was crushed with black pepper and applied around the eyes as an aid to night blindness.  Although this cure is no longer used, the whole plant is still powdered and used as a highly effective herbal dusting powder for wounds and skin diseases.  The gourd is renowned not just for its antidiabetic action, but for its capacity to lower exaggerated sexual drive.  The ripe fruit of bitter melon has been shown to exhibit some remarkable anticancer effects, especially leukemia.
            Two proteins, known as alpha- and beta-momorcharin which are present in the seeds, fruit and leaves have shown to inhibit the AIDS virus in vitro (in the test tube only). In 1996, scientists performing this research filed patent on a novel protein found and extracted from the fruit and seeds of Bitter Melon and which they named "MAP 30." The patent states it's invention, MAP 30, is: "useful for treating tumors and HIV infections... In treating HIV infections, the protein is administered alone or in conjunction with conventional AIDS therapies." A clinical study was also published showing MAP 30's antiviral activity also was relative to the herpes virus in vitro. A novel phytochemical in bitter melon has clinically demonstrated an ability to inhibit the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which is thought to be linked to the pathogenesis and replication of not only psoriasis but leukemia and cancer as well. Over the years other scientists have documented other in vitro antimicrobial benefits of Bitter Melon against numerous pathogens including Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
               The immunosuppressive effect of the plant may be of benefit in the management of graft rejections and organ transplants and could benefit the management of several common autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.

Cerbera (Cerbera manghas): Used much like digitalis. 

Ceylon Leadwort (Plumbago zeylanica)...Ceylon leadwort root is acrid and stimulates sweating.  In Nigeria, the leaves are used in soup as a remedy against intestinal worms and fever. In Ghana the root is administered as an enema to treat piles. In the Ivory coast and Upper Volta, the root is used to treat leprosy.  In Nepal, a decoction of the root is used to treat baldness.  In Indian herbal medicine, the leaves and root are used to treat infections and digestive problems such as dysentery.  The root is used as a vesicant, appetizer, used in skin diseases, diarrhea, dyspepsia, piles and anasarca. A paste of the root made in vinegar, milk or salt and water is an external application in leprosy and other skin ailments. It is also used in influenza and  black-water fever. The root bark used as a tincture is a sudorific and antiperiodic. The milky juice of the plant is used in scabies and ulcers.  The plumbago root is an emmenagogue and is used to procure abortion by a piece of the root being introduced to Cervex Uteri.  Externally, a paste of the leaves and root is applied to painful rheumatic areas or to chronic and itchy skin problems.  The paste acts as a counterirritant.  By raising blisters and increasing circulation, it speeds the clearing of toxins from the affected area.  It is stimulant and strengthens the stomach and aids its action. It increases digestive powders and stimulate appetite.


Cha de Bugre (Cordia salicifolia): It is a great appetite suppressant - but rather than cutting off appetite all together (then causing intense hunger when it wears off at the wrong time) it gives one a sense of being full and satiated after eating only a few bites of food. This seems to promote much smaller meals, more often, which is what many practitioners believe is better for sustained weight loss and keeping the metabolism going throughout the day. It works best if taken 30 minutes to one hour prior to a meal.  It is a mild diuretic and is useful in relieving water retention.  It also helps to avoid the formation of fatty deposits.  It is also considered a good general heart tonic which can help stimulate circulation and is used in Brazil and Haiti as a tea to help relieve coughs.

Chamomile, German (Matricaria recutita)  German chamomile has been taken for digestive problems since at least the 1st century AD.  Gentle and efficacious, it is very suitable for children. The herb is valuable for pain, indigestion, acidity, gas, gastritis, bloating, and colic.  It is also used for hiatus hernia, peptic ulcer, Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome.  German chamomile, which contains spiroether and bisabolol, very strong antispasmodics, relax tense, aching muscles and eases menstrual pain.  It also appears to have relaxing action on the smooth muscle lining of the digestive tract.  One study shows chamomile relaxes the digestive tract as well as the opium-based drug papaverine.  Chamomile also may help prevent stomach ulcers and speed their healing.  In one experiment, two groups of animals were fed a chemical known to cause ulcers.  Those also given chamomile developed significantly fewer.  Then the animals who developed ulcers were divided into two groups.  Those fed chamomile recovered more quickly.  It also relieves irritability and promotes sleep, especially in children.  German chamomile is useful for hay fever and asthma.  The proazulenes in the herb produce chamazulene on steam distillation, which is markedly antiallergenic.  Externally, it can be applied to sore, itchy skin and eczema.  It also relieves eyestrain.  A cream made from German chamomile was tested in 1987 for its ability to heal wounds and produced very good results.  Apply it externally for disinfecting and anti-inflammatory treatments in the form of packs, baths, and compresses using a strong tea, diluted chamomile tincture or a liquid chamomile extract.  In 1993, a trial using German chamomile and 4 other herbs showed them to be most effective at easing infantile colic.  Historically, chamomile poultices have been placed on cancers, and its sesquiterpene lactones do show immune system-stimulating and antitumor activity. 
Inflamed oral mucosa can also be treated with chamomile tea.  For stomatitis, an uncomfortable inflammation of the mouth’s mucous membranes, and canker sores, the mouth is rinsed with the tea or a liquid chamomile extract into one glass of water.
Due to its antispasmodic properties Chamomile is a good remedy for all cramping pains, especially for abdominal cramping in children.  At the same time it has a carminative effect of relieving flatulence. In pediatric medicine chamomile is used as a tea or syrup.  The effect can be increased by placing a hot chamomile pad on the painful area.  To treat cramps, mix equal parts of chamomile flowers and silverweed to make a tea.  Chamomile is a classic remedy for teething pains in children.  For this, use chamomile in its homeopathic form or as teething tablets. 

Chamomile, Roman (Chamaemelum nobile)   A remedy for the digestive system, Roman chamomile is often used interchangeably with German chamomile.  However, an infusion of Roman chamomile has a more pronounced bitter action than its German namesake.  It is an excellent treatment for nausea, vomiting, indigestion, and loss of appetite.  It is also sedative, antispasmodic and mildly analgesic, and will relieve colic, cramps, and other cramping pains.  By stimulating digestive secretions and relaxing the muscles of the gut, it helps normalize digestive function.  Roman chamomile may also be taken for headaches and migraine, even by children.  Its anti-inflammatory and antiallergenic properties make it helpful for irritated skin. 
Source: Crimson Sage

Chang Shan (Dichroa febrifuga): This plant is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs. The leaves are purgative. They are used in the treatment of stomach cancer. A decoction of the stem bark is used in the treatment of fevers. The root is emetic, expectorant, febrifuge and purgative. This plant is 26 times more powerful than quinine in the treatment of malaria but causes vomiting. Substances in the plant are 100 times more powerful than quinine, but they are poisonous.  Internally it is used for malaria and feverish states

Chaparal (Larrea tridentata ): Chaparal is used for treating such ailments as: tuberculosis, bowel complaints, stomach ulcers and bowel disorders, cancers, and colds and flu. It is found to be beneficial to the walls of capillaries throughout the body, and so are good to take regularly in cases of capillary fragility.  Chaparal contains N.D.G.A.. It is responsible for inhibiting several enzyme reactions, including lipo oxyginase, which is responsible for some unhealthy inflammatory and immune-system responses. It has been shown to reduce inflammatory histamine responses in the lung, which is good news for asthma sufferers. N.D.G.A. is one of the most highly anti-oxidant substances known to man. Several types of tumors, such as those in uterine fibroids and fibrosystic breast disease, can be helped immensely by a concentrated extract of the plant.   Chaparal can improve liver function, causing the liver metablolism to speed up, clearing toxins, and improving the livers' ability to synthesize fatty acids into high density lipids (HDLs....the good quality cholesterol). The low density lipids levels (LDLs....the poor quality cholesterol) decrease.  The strong anti-oxident effects of Larrea t. appear to repair free radical damage caused by drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines.  
           External uses of the herb include poultices placed on aching joints, and the tea or a fomentation (applied several times per day and left on the area) for such things as ringworm, skin fungi, and athletes' foot.  Has also been used for reducing fibroids  A study in the Journal of Dental Research showed chaparral mouthwash reduced cavities by 75%.   
            Lipoxygenase and 5-hydroxyeicosatatraenois acid are usually high in the synovial fluid of arthritis sufferers which means Chapparal’s ability to inhibit these can help here as well.   Larrea contains active flavonoids and ligans that, in addition to being anti-oxidants, act as antifungals, antibiotics, and antivirals. It is in this last capacity, as an antiviral that prompted investigations into its ability to inhibit the spl promoter HIV and as an inhibitor of Herpes simplex-1 in cell cultures; as well as Kaposi's sarcoma virus.   Clinical evaluations consisted of testimonies from close to 36 persons. Larrea was prepared as an extract in an aloe-based lotion and was effective in reversing symptoms in nearly all cases of HSV-1 and shingles within 12-24 hours and in greatly reducing the severity of sores from Kaposi's sarcoma in people in full-blown AIDS. The lotion proved to work faster and to be more effective than acyclovir, the main drug for herpes.   

When applied to the skin as a tea, tincture, or salve, Chaparral slows down the rate of bacterial grown and kills it with its antimicrobial activity.  Chaparral will also help dry skin, brittle hair and nails and cracks in the hands or feet.  

Chaparro (Castela erecta): Internally it is used as a tea for amebic dysentery, possibly hepatic amebiasis and for loss of appetite and nonulcer dyspepsia with fullness, flatulence

Chapeu-de-Couro (Echinodorus macraphyllus): An herbal tea is made from the leaves.  The taste is a little strong and honey or stevia can be mixed in to sweeten it. Influential in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism, poor circulation, blemishes, skin eruptions, liver ailments,  kidney and urinary infections, syphilis, and dermatitis

Chaste Tree (Vitex agnus-castus )  Back in the 17th century, herbalist Gerard wrote that the seeds and leaves helped with pain and inflammation of the uterus.  The hormonelike substances found in the seeds help to correct female hormonal imbalances, such as those that can occur during menopause, premenstrual syndrome, or menstruation, and also help dissolve fibroids and cysts.  German researchers suggest the berries increase production of luteinizing hormone and prolactin. Another study adds the increase of the hormone progesterone to the list.  The seeds do stimulate mother’s milk flow as shown in a clinical study when 100 nursing mothers taking chaste seeds were compared to those who were not.  Christopher Hobbs suggests its use during the first 3 months only of pregnancy to help prevent miscarriage and, with ginger, to allay morning sickness.  Chaste berries can help regulate periods when there is excessive or too frequent bleeding.  It also reestablishes normal ovulation after contraceptive pills have been used.  In women without ovaries, chasteberry appears to lessen extremes of hormonal imbalance, perhaps through indirect effects on the endocrine system, liver and circulation. Women with PMS with significant depression should probably steer clear of chasteberry.  Some research suggests that PMS with depression is caused by excess progesterone, and chasteberry is said to raise progesterone levels.  Chasteberry may help some women trying to conceive if infertility is due to low progesterone levels.  Most of the research has been done on a chaste berry extract called Agnolyt.  When 53 women with excessive bleeding and short menstrual cycles were given this product, 65% showed improvement and about 47% were cured.  Those over age 20 experienced the most improvements.  Other studies with Agnolyt found the chaste berry helps control acne in both young women and young men. Source: Crimson Sage

Chaulmoogra (Hydnocarpus kurzii): The oil, and the crushed seed, have long been used in southeast Asia to treat various skin diseases like scabies, eczema, psoriasis, scrofula, ringworm, and intestinal worms.  And it has been shown that the active principles of the oil (hydnocarpic and chaulmoogric acids) are strongly antibacterial.  For this reason Caulmoogra is employed in Hindu medicine to treat leprosy.  The bark contains principles capable of reducing fevers.  Oil is given as an emulsion or by injection.  Seed used externally and internally. It is usually applied externally as a dressing for skin diseases: combined with walnut oil and pork lard for ringworm; with calomel and sesame oil for leprosy; and with sulfur and camphor for scabies.  In India the seeds are considered to be an alternative tonic.  The seeds may be taken powdered in the form of pills.  Was first mentioned in Chinese medical literature in 1347, and its use spread worldwide as a treatment for serious skin diseases.  

Chebulic Myrobylan (Terminalia chebula)....Laxative and astringent, the fruit gently improves bowel regularity without excessively irritating the colon.  Like Chinese rhubarb, chebulic myrobalan may be used as a treatment for diarrhea and dysentery. The fruit’s tannins protect the gut wall from irritation and infection, and tend to reduce intestinal secretions.  Likewise, the fruit helps to counter acidic indigestion and heartburn.  A decoction of chebulic myrobalan may be used as a gargle and mouthwash, as a lotion for sore and inflamed eyes, and as a douche for vaginitis and excessive vaginal discharge.  The dried fruits and seeds are prescribed in Ayurvedic medicine for such illnesses as dermatosis, edema, and urinary infections.  It is also considered an excellent blood purifier.  Finely powdered, it is used as a dentifrice, and for bleeding or ulcerated gums. Coarsely powdered and smoked in a pipe, it is used to relieve asthma.  TCM: Indications: Chronic diarrhea and dysentery; prolapse of rectum; asthma and coughs due to empty lungs; leukorrhea; menorrhagia

Cheken (Eugenia chequen): Most useful in the chronic bronchitis of elderly people and in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs.

Cherokee Rose (Rosa laevigata): The leaves are a famous vulnerary. The fruits, root and leaves stabilize the kidney. A decoction is used in the treatment of chronic dysentery, urinary tract infections, wet dreams, prolapse of the uterus, menstrual irregularities and traumatic injuries. The root bark is astringent and used in the treatment of diarrhea and menorrhagia.  The dried fruits are used internally in the treatment of urinary dysfunction, infertility, seminal emissions, urorrhea, leucorrhea and chronic diarrhea. The root is used in the treatment of uteral prolapse.  The flowers are used in the treatment of dysentery and to restore hair cover. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Cherry, Cornelian   (Cornus mas)  The fruits have a mildly astringent action. The same fruits, when eaten fresh, are a good gastro-intestinal astringent and used for bowel complaints and fevers, while also used in the treatment of cholera.   Apart from its astringent properties, cornel bark can be used as a tonic and febrifuge.  The flowers are used in the treatment of diarrhea.

Cherry, Indian (Rhamnus carolinianus): A tea made from the bark is emetic and strongly laxative. It is used in the treatment of constipation with nervous or muscular atony of the intestines.  An infusion of the wood has been used in the treatment of jaundice.

Cherry Laurel (Prunus lauroceerasus): The fresh leaves are of value in the treatment of coughs, whooping cough, asthma, dyspepsia and indigestion. Externally, a cold infusion of the leaves is used as a wash for eye infections.  A reliable sedative and frequently the principal agent in cough medicine.  Cherry-laurel water (Aqua Laurocerasi) is produced by distillation. In homeopathy, a tincture produced from the leaves is used as a sedative.  It may also be used externally in soothing poultices.

Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) A strong infusion of chervil will ease gnat and mosquito bites, dabbed on the affected area at regular intervals.  Pliny thought that hiccups could be stopped by drinking vinegar containing the seed of chervil and that it was good for stomach disorders.  During the time of the plague, chervil roots were boiled and eaten as a preventative.  Poultices of chervil leaves have been laid on oils, bruises, and other skin afflictions by the ancient Arabians, Greeks, Romans, and Europeans.  It was boiled in wine for urinary disorders and for use as a speedy diuretic.  The juice pressed out of the fresh flowering herb has been used for scrofula, eczema, gout stones, abscesses, dropsy, and women’s abdominal complaints. The infusion is popularly used in Europe to lower blood pressure.  Source: Crimson Sage  

Chestnut, American (Castanea dentata):  The Indians made a tea from the leaves to treat whooping cough and the same tea has been used as a sedative and tonic.  The bark was used to treat worms and dysentery.

Chestnut, Chinese (Castanea mollissima): A decoction of the burrs is used in the treatment of diarrhea, uncontrollable nose bleed, dysentery, regurgitation and profound thirst. The flowers are used in the treatment of scrofula. The stem bark is used to treat poisoned wounds whilst the stem sap is used to treat lacquer poisoning.

Chestnut, Malabar (Pachira aquatica): A popular beverage tea to build the blood in old age, to treat anemia and exhaustion, and for low blood pressure.  For kidney pain, cut a seed form the fruit in quarters; boil in 1 cup of water for 5 minutes and drink before breakfast for 3 consecutive days.  Boil a piece of bark 2.5 x 10 cm in 3 cups water for 10 minutes; drink ½ cup 6 times daily as a general tonic to build blood and strength.

Chestnut, Sweet (Castanea sativa)...All parts of the tree are rich in tannin, used medicinally as an astringent useful in the treatment of bleeding, diarrhea, etc..  An infusion of sweet chestnut leaves treats whopping cough, bronchitis, and bronchial congestion.  The preparation tightens the mucous membranes and inhibits racking coughs.  A decoction of leaves or bark is also valuable as a gargle for sore throats and may be taken for diarrhea. The leaves are also used to treat rheumatic conditions, lower back pain, and stiff joints or muscles. 

Chichibe (Sida rhombifolia): The Sida species is one of the most important family of medicinal plants in India. In Unani medicine, the leaves and roots are used, piles, gonorrhea, anti-soud, diuretic, aphrodisiac. Root of these herbs are held in great repute in treatment of rheumatism. Stems abound in mucilage and are employed as demulcents and emollients both for external and internal use. The herb is also useful in calculous troubles and as a febrifuge with pepper. Mucilage is used for scorpion sting.  The Aborigines used the decocted root for diarrhea and ate the raw root for indigestion. In India the plant has been used for consumption and rheumatism and in Europe for tuberculosis.

Chickweed (Stellaria media):  Historically used to treat both internal and external inflammations.  Poultice of stems and leaves used to ease arthritis and pains of the joints, cuts, and skin irritations.  It may soothe severe itchiness and is often used to relieve eczema, varicose veins and nettle rash.  An infusion of the fresh or dried plant may be added to a bath, where the herb’s emollient properties will help reduce inflammation, in rheumatic joints for example, and encourage tissue repair.  It may be taken internally to treat chest ailments and in small quantities, it also aids digestion.   The saponins in chickweed are poorly absorbed through the intestinal walls, but apparently increase the permeability of the mucous membranes sufficiently to produce expectorant effects on the throat and increase the absorption of nutrients, especially minerals, from the digestive tract.  Homeopathic remedy for rheumatism.  The root of S. dichotoma is used in China as a cooling herb in fevers and to stop nosebleeds and heavy menstrual bleeding.  It is also given as a tonic for malnourished children.   

Chickweed Wintergreen (Trientalis europaea): Rare and not in common use.  Where available the ointment can be made and used as a treatment for wounds.  An infusion of the leaves is taken as a blood purifier and for treating eczema.  The root is emetic.  During the Middle Ages chickweed wintergreen was reputed to heal wounds and cure blood poisoning.

Chicory (Cichorium intybus): : Chicory has been an esteemed medical plant ever since the Roman physician Galen called it “the friend of the liver” some 1,800 years ago.  A syrup of chicory, rhubarb and oats was given to patients with liver ailments.  It was also considered valuable for treating a variety of other ailments.  A syrup of the whole plant was prepared with sugar and taken to cure insomnia.  The bruised fresh leaves were applied externally for healing eye inflammations and boiled in broth for strengthening the digestion of the persons with weak stomachs.  An infusion of the leaves was also used to reduce fever in children.  A distilled water of chicory or the juice pressed from it was good for pregnant women and especially to soothe nursing breasts that were swollen from too much milk. 
             Chicory is an excellent bitter tonic for the liver and digestive tract.  Recommended for loss of appetite and dyspepsia.  The root is therapeutically similar to dandelion root, supporting the action of the stomach and liver and cleansing the urinary tract.  Chicory is also taken for rheumatic conditions and gout, and as  milk laxative, one particularly appropriate for children.  An infusion of the leaves and flowers also aids the digestion. A decoction may alleviate gallstones and kidney stones and aid in the production of bile.               Egyptians treated rapid heartbeat with chicory root, and scientists have discovered a digitalis-like principle in both the dried and roasted root that decreases the heart rate and amplitude.   Conducted studies on rats show that inulin from chicory seems very effective in promoting proprionic fermentation and enhances the calcium content of the large intestines.  Experiments with the isolated toad heart show that chicory extracts reduce cardiac rate in a manner similar to quinidine.  These findings suggest chicory constituents may be effective in treatment of disorders involving tachycardia, arrhythmias and fibrillation. 
          It also has been found to significantly lower cholesterol and blood sugar levels.  The sesquiterpene lactones found in roasted root kill bacteria.  
Internally used for diabetes, dry coughs, abscesses, childbirth (second stage of labor), and abortion (tubers); bronchial infections with thick phlegm, chest pain and tightness; dry constipation, and lung and breast tumors (fruits).   Fruits are traditionally prepared as a winter soup to ward off colds and influenza.
        Trichosanthin was isolated from the root tuber of a Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz and was identified as the active component of Tian Hua Fen, a Chinese medicine described as early as the 16th century as a treatment for various kinds of ulcer. Since the discovery of its specific injurious effects on human placental trophoblasts in the 1970's, trichosanthin has been used clinically in China to induce abortion and to treat diseases of trophoblastic origin such as hydatiform mole, invasive mole and choriocarcinoma. Soon after the laboratory finding in 1989 by McGrath et al. that trichosanthin appeared to inhibit the HIV-1 replication in both acutely infected T-lymphoblastoid cells and in chronically infected macrophages, and selectively killed HIV-infected cells while leaving uninfected cells unharmed, clinical trials of trichosanthin as a potential treatment for HIV were carried out in USA. Trichosanthin attacks the life cycle of the virus at an entirely different point from AZT and related drugs, and in other words, it has a unique mechanism of action complementary to other drugs. Present clinical reports showed that trichosanthin has some curing effects on AIDS patients and suggested it to be a possible treatment that may fill the gap in the treatment of HIV disease.

Chimaja (Cymopterus fendleri): The leaves and seeds are brewed as a tea for weak stomach and indigestion with gas. Steeped in whiskey or tequila, a sip serves the same purpose. Simple tea of leaves and seeds.

China Root (Smilax china): The root is considered useful when taken internally in the treatment of old syphilitic cases and is also used for certain skin diseases, including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, enteritis, urinary tract infections, skin ulcers etc. Large doses can cause nausea and vomiting, which is valuable in weakened and depraved conditions due to a poisoned state of the blood.

Chinaberry (Melia azedarach): Used externally in the treatment of rheumatism.  An aqueous extract reduces the intensity of asthmatic attacks. A decoction is astringent and stomachic. The leaves are harvested during the growing season and can be used fresh or dried.  The flowers and leaves are applied as a poultice in the treatment of neuralgia and nervous headache. The stembark is used as a tonic in India. The fruit pulp is used as a vermifuge.  The seed is antirheumatic. It is used externally. The rootbark is highly effective against ringworm and other parasitic skin diseases.  A gum that exudes from the tree is considered by some to have aphrodisiac properties. Usually combined with Glycyrrhiza glabra to reduce toxicity for internal use.  Source: Crimson Sage

Chinese Angelica Tree (Aralia chinensis): The stem and root are used as a warming painkilling herb in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The root is also considered to be useful in the treatment of diabetes and dysmenorrhoea. Some caution is advised since the bark is considered to be slightly poisonous. The plant also relieves flatulence.  It regulates body moisture and  promotes the health of the circulatory and respiratory systems.  The roots and stems are used in decoctions.  Single dose: 31-62g.  Studies in vitro showed that the water extract of herb had cytotoxical effect on esophageal cell line and tests in vivo indicated that it was effective against SAK, HepS, EAC, s180, and U14 murine tumors.

Chinese Arborvitae (Thuja orientalis): A bitter, astringent, cooling herb that controls bleeding and coughing, stimulates the uterus, encourages hair growth, and is expectorant and antibacterial (foliage); a sweet sedative, mildly laxative herb (seeds)  Internally used for coughs, hemorrhage, excessive menstruation, bronchitis, asthma, skin infections, mumps, bacterial dysentery, arthritic pain, and premature baldness (foliage); and for palpitations, insomnia, nervous disorders, and constipation in the elderly (seeds). The root bark is used in the treatment of burns and scalds.  The stems are used in the treatment of coughs, colds, dysentery, rheumatism and parasitic skin diseases.

Chinese Clematis (Clematis chinensis): A decoction of the root is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism and arthritis, tetanus and cold-type stomach-ache.  The plant has a history of folk use in the treatment of cancer. The root contains anemonin, this has antibacterial, analgesic, sedative and antispasmodic actions. It also inhibits the heart and central nervous system and is rubefacient. 15 g of the drug in decoction with 250g of rice vinegar dissolves fish bones lodged in the throat


Chinese Goldthread (Coptis chinensis):

Chinese Lantern (Physalis alkekengi):

Chinese Persimmon (Diospyros kaki):

Chinese Pink (Dianthus chinensis):

Chinese Plum Tree (Prunus japonica):

Chinese Raspberry (Rubus coreanus):

Chinese Sumac (Rhus chinensis):

Chinese Violet (Viola yesoensis):

Chinese White Olive (Canarium album): In Chinese medicine the raw fruit is an antidote for eating poisonous fish.  It is used for sore throat, toothache, inebriation, and diarrhea. The ripe fruit is edible and considered sedative.  It is used as a liver tonic and to eliminate apprehension.  The powdered seed has been used to treat earache, inflammation.   It is believed to also dissolve fish bones swallowed accidentally, while juice from the kernel is reputed to soften bones lodged in the throat.

Chinese Woad (Isatis indigotica):

Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium chinense):

Chinese Wormwood (Artemisia apiacea): Chinese medicinal herb useful against fevers and malaria. It inhibits the maturation of malaria parasites in the body. Known for its cooling effect and its ability to clear toxins from the system. Powerful antibiotic, and stops bleeding especially nose bleeds. The plant can be used interchangeably with Artemisia annua

Chinese Yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia):

Chiretta (Swertia chirata):

Chitra (Berberis aristata): Used in India for intermittent fevers, in a similar manner as golden seal. The fruits of Berberis aristata  are given as a cooling laxative to children. The stem is said to be diaphoretic and laxative and useful in rheumatism. The dried extract of the roots is used as an application in ophthalmia. It is also an excellent medication in the case of sun-blindness.  The bark of its root is a valuable medicine in intermittent and remittent fevers. The root is one of the few really good medicines in India. In its efficacy, it is almost equal to quinine and Warburg's tincture. It does not produce any bad effects on the stomach, the bowels, the brain and the organs of hearing.  A very valuable preparation called rasaut is prepared from this plant. For preparing rasaut, the bark of the root and of the lower part of the stem is boiled in water, strained and evaporated till a semi-solid mass (rasaut) is obtained. Rasaut is fairly soluble in water. It is mixed with butter and alum, or with opium and lime-juice and is applied externally to the eyelids to cure ophthalmia and other eye diseases. It is also reported to be a mild laxative, a tonic and is useful in curing ulcers and fevers.
            It was observed that, in the dose range of 1-3 mg. berberine neutralized, in vitro, the anticoagulant action of 50 I.U. heparin per ml of blood and had no effect on blood samples rendered incoagulable by potassium oxalate, sodium citrate and EDTA. Parodoxically, large dose (10mg/ml) of berberine itself produced anticoagulant effect. These effects resembled those produced by protamine sulphate and toluidine blue.
            Berberine protected 50 -75 per cent chick embryos from the lethal effect of trachoma organisms inoculated into the yolk sac. It also completely inhibited development of the elementary bodies on the yold sac membrane. In control experiments, 1 mg. per egg dose of sulphadiazine produced similar effect. Further, berberine was found encouragingly effective in controlling experimentally - induced trachoma in monkey eyes.

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum): : Chives has been used as a vermifuge.  Used as an antiseptic, diuretic and  a stimulant.  The oil in chives is used in medicines to help reduce blood pressure.  Suggested in the Orient as a cold, flu and lung congestion remedy. 

Chonggak (Codium fragile): In China, used to clear away heat and toxic materials, reduce tumescence and nourish dampness and driving bug. For edema, difficulty of pisses, driving lumbricoid and drink.

Chou Wu Tong (Clerodendrum trichotomum):

Chuan Bei Mu (Fritillaria cirrhosa): The bulbs contain fritimine which lowers blood pressure, diminishes excitability of respiratory centers, paralyses voluntary movement and counters the effects of opium. The dried bulb is used internally in the treatment of coughs, bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma, feverish illnesses, abscesses etc. The bulbs also have a folk history of use against cancer of the breast and lungs in China. This remedy should only be used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner, excessive doses can cause breathing difficulties and heart failure. The Kameng and Lohit peoples in Arunachal Pradesh crush a bulk of Fritillaria cirrhosa to a paste to relieve muscle pains. Research has now confirmed the presence of a chemical similar to cocaine in a related Fritillaria plant that brings relief to muscular pain.

Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum): Chinese Medicine: Disperses wind and clears heat: for wind-heat patterns with fever and headache; Clears the Liver and the eyes: for either wind-heat in the Liver channel manifested in red, painful, dry eyes or excessive tearing, or yin deficiency of the Kidneys and Liver with such symptoms as spots in front of the eyes, blurry vision, or dizziness; Calms the Liver and extinguishes wind: for such symptoms as dizziness, headache, and deafness due to ascendant Liver yang.  The ability of white chrysanthemum to nourish the Liver and clear the eyes is somewhat superior to the other varieties.  It is also known as sweet chrysanthemum (gan ju hua). This variety is often used for diminished vision due to Liver and Kidney yin deficiency.  Yellow chrysanthemum (huang ju hua) has a greater wind-heat dispersing capacity than do the other varieties.  It is most often used in treating eye redness and headache due to externally-contracted wind-heat.  Research has demonstrated that it is a valuable remedy for high blood pressure.

Chuan Niu Xi (Cyathula officinalis): Roots are mainly used for pain associated with menstruation. Increasingly used more generally for abdominal blood stasis.  Other uses are to treat rheumatism, arthritis, and skin infection

Chufa (Cyperus esculentus):

Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum): : Coriander seeds are used in many medicines to improve taste especially bitter laxatives.  They aid digestion, reduce gas and improve the appetite.  Previously coriander water was used to relieve colic.  The Chinese use coriander tea to counter dysentery and measles.  East Indians make the seeds into an eyewash to prevent blindness in smallpox patients.  The oil is an antiseptic and was suggested by Dioscorides to great urinary tract restrictions and inflammations.  Add the essential oil to ointments for painful rheumatic joints and muscles.   

Cinchona (Cinchona calisaya )  The indigenous people of Peru have taken cinchona for many centuries, and it is still a well-used remedy for fevers, digestive problems, and infections.  Cinchona, and in particular quinine, were the principal remedies for malaria until World War I.  From the 1960s on, resistance of the malarial parasite to the synthetic drug chloroquine led to quinine’s use once again in preventing and treating malaria.  Quinine is also used to treat other acute feverish conditions.  As a bitter tonic, cinchona stimulates saliva, digestive secretions, and the appetite, and improves weak digestive functions.  It is useful as a gargle for sore, infected throats.  The herb is used in herbal medicine for cramps, especially night cramps.  It also relieves arthritis.  In India, cinchona is used to treat sciatica and dysentery, as well as problems associated with an imbalance in kapha.  Edgar Cayce primarily recommended calisaya as a blood purifier and aid to digestion.  There is also a distinct action of quieting the heart, reducing palpitations and normalizing the function.
Cinchona has been thoroughly researched, and its pharmacological actions are well established.  Quinine is both strongly antimalarial and antibacterial.  Like the other alkaloids, it is antispasmodic.  The bitter constituents in cinchona, including the alkaloids and quinovin, produce a reflex stimulation of the digestion as a whole, increasing stomach secretions.  Quinidine is known to reduce heart rate and improve irregularity of heartbeat. 

Cinnamon: (Cinnamomum zeylanicum):  :  It was one of the ingredients in ivory jelly, which was made from powdered ivory and given at one time to consumptives.  It raises vitality, warms and stimulates all the vital functions of the body, counteracts congestion, is antirheumatic, stops diarrhea, improves digestion, relieves abdominal spasms, aids the peripheral circulation of the blood.  Cinnamon is the second most widely used warming stimulant in Chinese medicine, used by Chinese herbalists much as Western herbalists have used cayenne.  In India, it is taken after childbirth as a contraceptive.  It has a slight emmenagogic action—stimulating the uterus and encouraging menstrual bleeding.  Japanese research in the 1980s showed that cinnamaldehyde was sedative and analgesic.  It is also thought to reduce blood pressure and fevers.     One German study showed cinnamon suppresses completely the cause of most urinary tract infections and the fungus responsible for vaginal yeast infections..  It helps break down fats in your digestive system, possibly by boosting the activity of some digestive enzymes.  You can dust a bit of cinnamon on cuts and scrapes (it contains eugenol) which helps relieve the pain of household mishaps.

Cinnamon Fern (Osmunda cinnamonea):  

Cinquefoil (Potentilla reptans and P. canadensis)  The outer bark of the root has been used as a remedy for diarrhea and internal hemorrhages.  The powder also makes an astringent for mouth sores and relieves diarrhea.  Taken with honey, it relieves sore throats, coughs and fever. A decoction made by boiling 1 ½ ounces of root in a quart of water until the liquid is reduced to one pint, or an infusion of one ounce of the dried leafy tops, steeped for 10 or 15 minutes in a pint of water, are both suggested in old herbals. 

Clammy Groundcherry (Physalis heterophylla): The seed is considered to be beneficial in the treatment of difficult urination, fever, inflammation and various urinary disorders. A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of headaches and as a wash for burns and scalds. A poultice of the leaves and roots is applied to wounds. An infusion of the leaves and roots is used as a wash on scalds, burns and VD sores. Compounds in the plant are being investigated for antitumor activity.

Clary Sage (Salvia sclaria) Like its relative sage, clary tea, the leaf juice in ale or beer, was recommended for many types of women’s problems, including delayed or painful menstruation.  It was once used to stop night sweating in tuberculosis patients.  An astringent is gargled, douched and poured over skin wounds.  It is combined with other herbs for kidney problems.  The clary seeds form a thick mucilage when soaked for a few minutes and placed in the eye, helps to removed, small irritating particles.  A tea of the leaves is also used as an eyewash.  Clary is also used to reduce muscle spasms. 
It is used today mainly to treat digestive problems such as gas and indigestion.  It is also regarded as a tonic, calming herb that helps relieve premenstrual problems.  Because of its estrogen-stimulating action, clary sage is most effective when levels of this hormone are low.  The plant can therefore be a valuable remedy for complaints associated with menopause, particularly hot flashes.  

Clausena (Clausena anisata): The pounded roots, with lime and Guinea grains, are applied to rheumatic and other pains in Nigeria, where also the leaves are considered anthelmintic.   In some parts of Africa it is considered a cough remedy.  Recent research has shown the root methanolic extract indicates that the herb possesses hypoglycaemic activity, though not as strong as insulin; and thus lends credence to the suggested folkloric use of C. anisata root in the management and/or control of adult-onset, Type-2 diabetes mellitus in some communities of South Africa.

Cleavers (Galium aparine): valuable tonic to the lymphatic system.  It would be used in swollen glands anywhere in the body and especially in tonsillitis and in adenoid trouble.  It eliminates excess fluid, counteracts inflammations, and urinary infections, hepatitis and venereal disease.  In the East Indies, the juice of the herb taken in teaspoonful doses is considered a very effective treatment for gonorrhea.  It is a blood purifier as well as an effective diuretic.  Thus it is excellent for inflammations, both taken internally and applied topically in the form of a poultice.    It has a good reputation as an external application for cancerous growths and tumors.  A decoction sponged on the face with a soft cloth is useful for sunburn and freckles  A tea is considered excellent for the treatment of psoriasis.  According to French research in 1947, an extract of the plant appears to lower blood pressure.

Clematis, Purple (Clematis occidentalis): A poultice of the pounded, dampened leaves of blue clematis has been applied by the Okanagan-Colville Indians to the feet to treat sweaty feet. They also made a tea of leaves alone or the stems and leaves and used it as a hair wash to prevent gray hair. The Navajo Indians used a cold tea of the plant as a lotion on swollen knees and ankles. The Thompson Indians used the plant as a head wash and to treat scabs and eczema. Most effective when taken at early onset of migraines. Also for cluster and general headaches.
            Blackfoot used boiled leaves applied to skin where ‘ghost bullets' had been removed by shaman; smudge from stem used to revive people who had fainted from being near 'ghosts'; infusion of plant given to horses as a diuretic.  The Flathead used a decoction of entire plant used as wash for sores and itches, or boiled plant rubbed on affected areas; decoction of stem and leaves used as hair restorer or shampoo, sometimes combined with Pterospora andromedea. Kootenay-infusion used as hair wash, believed to make the hair grow longer.  Montana Indians used a decoction of leaves as a headache remedy; root used as a stimulant to revive fallen race horses.  Okanagan used the leaves and branch mashed and steeped or boiled in water to make a hair wash, said to prevent gray hair; if used every day for a month, said to kill 'germs' in hair roots.  Stoney used a wash from stems used as eye wash; feathery achenes used as swabs to stop bleeding.  Thompson used a decoction of plant used as wash for head and neck scabs.

Cleveland Sage (Salvia clevelandii):

Climbing Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens): Climbing bittersweet was employed medicinally by a number of native North American Indian tribes, though it is scarcely used in modern herbalism.  The root is a folk remedy for chronic liver and skin ailments, rheumatism, leukorrhea, dysentery and suppressed menses. A strong compound infusion, usually combined with raspberry leaf tea, has been used to reduce the pain of childbirth. A poultice of the boiled root has been used to treat obstinate sores, skin eruptions etc.  Externally, the bark is used as an ointment on burns, scrapes and skin eruptions.  The bark of the root has been taken internally to induce vomiting, to quiet disturbed people, to treat venereal diseases and to increase urine flow.  As an ointment mixed with grease it has been used to treat skin cancers, tumors, burns and swellings.  A decoction of the root bark has been used to induce menstrual flow and perspiration.  Extracts of the bark are thought to be cardioactive.  Many plants in this genus contain compounds of interest for their antitumor activity. 

Climbing Hydrangea (Schizophragma integrifolium): The root and the climbing stem are carminative and refrigerant. Activates blood circulation, strengthens muscles and bones.

Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus):

Clover, Alsike (Trifolium hybridum): A cold infusion of the plant has been used as a wash on the breasts of a nursing mother in order to increase the milk flow.

Clover, Crimson (Trifolium incarnatum): Leaves are made into a strong infusion to suspend the spasms of whooping cough or into a salve for indolent sores.

Clover, Suckling (Trifolium dubium): A poultice of the chopped plant has been applied to cuts to stop the bleeding..

Clover, Tick (Desmodium triflorum): Whole plant used to treat dysentery

Clover, Velvet Prairie (Dalea purpurea): This was one of the favored plants of the Native Americans of the prairies. A tea made from the leaves was applied to open wounds and a tea made from the bruised leaves steeped in hot water was used to aid in the healing of wounds as well. Some tribes pulverized the root and made a tea from that powder that was a very healthy drink and a preventative medicine. Some tribes used the entire plant as a prophylactic. Early settlers mixed the bark of the white oak tree and the flowers of this species to make a medicine for diarrhea.  The Chippewa Indians made a decoction of the leaves and blossoms to be used in the treatment of heart problems. The Meskwaki Indians used it to treat diarrhea, and they also made an infusion of the roots in the treatment of measles. The Navajo used the plant to treat pneumonia. 

Clover, White (Trifolium repens): The flower heads are the medicinally active parts.  When dry they have a honey-like fragrance and a slightly astringent taste.  An infusion is used to treat gastritis, enteritis, severe diarrhea and rheumatic pains.  It is also used as an inhalant for respiratory infections. Herbal doctors still employ preparations of white clover to ward off mumps.  An old fashioned remedy to cleanse the system. A blood purifier, especially in boils, ulcers and other skin diseases. A strong tea of white clover blossoms is very healing to sores when applied externally. Similar to red clover in use.  An infusion has been used in the treatment of coughs, colds, fevers and leucorrhea. A tincture of the leaves is applied as an ointment to gout. An infusion of the flowers has been used as an eyewash.

Cloves (Syzigium aromaticum or Eugenia Caryophyllata): : Traditional Chinese physicians have long used the herb to treat indigestion, diarrhea, hernia, and ringworm, as well as athlete’s foot and other fungal infections.  India’s traditional Ayurvedic healers have used clove since ancient times to treat respiratory and digestive ailments.  America’s 19th century Eclectic physicians used clove to treat digestive complaints and added it to bitter herb-medicine preparations to make them more palatable.  The Eclectics were also the first to extract clove oil from the herbal buds. It has antiseptic, stimulant, stomachic and digestive properties.  As an anti-infectant, cloves are effective against coli bacilli, streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci and as an antimycotic.  The oil, too, is used in dentistry for its antiseptic and analgesic properties, and, like the whole cloves and powdered cloves, for local pain-relieving purposes.  Eugenol is a local anesthetic used in dental fillings and cements; a rubifacient and a carminative.  It is also an irritant and an allergic sensitizer.      Besides all their other uses, cloves can be used to treat acne, skin ulcers, sores, and styes.  They also make a potent mosquito and moth repellent which is where the clove studded orange pomander comes from.

Cnidium (Cnidium monnieri):

Coastal Wallflower (Erysimum capitatum):  A preventative against sun burn, the plant was ground up then mixed with water and applied to the skin. It relieves the pain caused by overexposure to heat.  A poultice of the whole pounded plant has been applied to open fresh wounds and rheumatic joints. An infusion of the whole plant has been used as a wash on aching muscles.  The crushed leaves have been sniffed as a treatment for headaches.  A poultice of the warmed root has been applied to treat the pain of toothache.  An infusion of the crushed seed has been drunk and used externally in the treatment of stomach or bowel cramps. For chest pains or pneumonia, as a tea; or powdered, mixed with Osha and water and applied to the chest as a poultice.  It is sometimes used as a preventative in households where some members have coughs; for chills from exposure to cold weather; and at the onset of cold symptoms

Coca (Erythroxylum coca): Chewed with a pinch of lime, the leaf releases a mild dose of cocaine alkaloid which numbs sensory nerves, dulls hunger and pain and even provides vitamins otherwise absent in the starch-heavy diet of the highland Indian.  When this active alkaloid is isolated and refined, Cocaine is produced, a drug with an unequalled power to stimulate the pleasure centers of the human brain.
         Some physicians question the classification of cocaine as a narcotic, because it has exactly opposite characteristics of opium. Cocaine produces intense euphoria and short-term hallucinations; there is apparently no true physical addiction or physical withdrawal symptoms from the milder, standard cocaine, although persons are psychologically addicted and have intense cravings for the drug. However, the reintroduction of Crack (quicklime added, as in ancient times), was very dangerous and physically addictive. Cocaine is snorted or sniffed generally through the nose and is absorbed through the nasal epithelium. This ruins nasal tissues and causes increases in heart rate and blood pressure as well as a rise in body temperature. Several synthetic cocaine-like substances are used in medicine and dentistry, including procaine or Novocaine and Lidocaine.
            Modern medicine has used cocaine to treat eczema, shingles (herpes zoster) and has been found to be an effective bactericide against Gram-negative bacteria and coccus bacteria.  It was used as a topical anesthetic and a spinal anesthetic, but has been replaced by synthetic forms such as procaine. Modern herbalists have many uses for coca leaves. Some of the uses include: relieving altitude illness (hypoxia), treating gastrointestinal disorders, relieving the discomfort of colds, bruises, sore joint and muscles, swollen and sore feet and headaches.
           Externally used in preparations for eczema, nettle rash, hemorrhoids, facial neuralgia, and as a local anesthetic in surgery.  Combined with morphone, as a “Bropton cocktail” to relieve pain in the terminally ill.  Effectively used for defective innervation with dizziness, impaired digestion, occipital and post-cervical pain, and inability to stand for a length of time; migraine; fatigue; weariness and mental and physical exhaustion; labored and difficult breathing, with normal temperature; inordinate hunger and thirst.

Cocculus (Anamirta cocculus):

Cocillana (Guarea rusbyi):

Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium): Cocklebur fruits are used to treat arthritis and rheumatism, to open the nasal passages and sinuses, for allergic rhinitis with headache, chronic lumbago, leprosy and pruritis (severe itching) of the skin.  Three or four pods boiled in water will stop the most obstinate diarrhea.  A teaspoon of the crushed pods boiled for five minutes has analgesic, diuretic, and antispasmodic effects.  This herb is very obnoxious in its natural state, as the seed pods tend to adhere to animal fur and human clothing.  It is, however, a very valuable therapeutic agent widely used by the Chinese for rheumatic aches and pains as well as sinus blockage.  Extracts of the plant have been shown to control tumor growth in laboratory animals.  The stem and leaves used to treat German measles.  A tea of the leaves is a useful diuretic and is especially useful for chronic cystitis; a rounded teaspoon of the chopped leaves in tea, morning and afternoon.  A tincture of the crushed seeds is both clotting and antiseptic for skin abrasions, and is a good first aid dressing.

Cock's Foot (Dactylis glomerata): Reported to be estrogenic. The plant is a folk remedy for treating tumors, kidney and bladder ailments

Cockscomb (Celosia argentea cristata):

Cockspur (Acacia cornigera): Root and bark are used in snakebite remedy.  Bushmasters instruct that the snakebite victim should cut a piece of the bark equal to his forearm and chew this, swallowing the juices, and applying the leftover fibers as a poultice to the bite; the victim can then start walking home while chewing on the root and swallowing the juice.  The poultice is said to delay reaction time to the toxin, adding 6-8 hours of time to allow victim to get help. It has been used as traditional medicine for relief of mucous congestion for infants. Babies are given water containing the ants (once they've been squeezed and strained). Acne and other skin conditions can be bathed with water in which the thorns have been boiled.  For male impotency, boil a 2.5 x 15 cm strip of bark in 3 cups water for 10 minutes and take 1 cup before meals for 7 days.  If results are slow, double the strength of the tea for 3 more days.  For infantile catarrh, catch 9 of the small black ants that inhabit the thorns (they protect the tree from attack from harmful insects); squeeze these into ½ cup boiled water, strain and give to infant by teaspoon until consumed.  For onset of asthma attacks, cough, and lung congestion, boil 9 thorns (including their ants) in 3 cups of water for 10 minutes.  Said to be useful also for treatment of poisoning and headaches.

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao): Although cacao is most often used as a food, it also has therapeutic value as a nervous system stimulant.  In Central America and the Caribbean, the seeds are taken as a heart and kidney tonic.  The plant may be used to treat angina and as a diuretic.  Cacao butter makes a good lip salve, and is often used as a base for suppositories.  In 1994, Argentinian researchers showed that cacao extracts counter the bacteria responsible for boils and septicemia.  
            Chocolate naturally contains a drug substance, theobromine, which is chemically similar to caffeine, and has a similar mild habit forming, stimulating effect on humans.  Its action on muscle, the kidneys and the heart is more pronounced.  It is used principally for its diuretic effect due to stimulation of the renal epithelium; it is especially useful when there is an accumulation of fluid in the body resulting from cardiac failure, when it is often given with digitalis to relieve dilatation.  It is also employed in high blood pressure, as it dilates the blood-vessels.  Many people are "addicted" to this drug and humorously refer to themselves as "chocoholics". Although chocolate is as mildly addicting as is coffee and other caffeine containing drinks, its effect is relatively innocuous.  
              Central Americans have used cocoa for centuries to treat fever, coughs and complaints of pregnancy and childbirth.  They have also rubbed cocoa butter on burns, chapped lips, balding heads and the sore nipples of nursing mothers.  The Eclectics recommended cocoa butter externally as a wound dressing and salve.  For internal use, they prescribed hot cocoa for asthma and as a nutritive for invalids and persons convalescing from acute illness.  
             There is no evidence that chocolate causes acne, kidney stones, or infant colic.  However, chocolate does contain chemicals (tyramines) that trigger headaches in some people, particularly those prone to migraines.  Many people find a cup of hot chocolate soothes their stomachs after meals.  The problem is that cocoa and chocolate may cause heartburn. The herb relaxes the valve between the stomach and the esophagus

Coconut (Cocos nucifera):    

Codonopsis (Codonopsis pilosula and Codonopsis tangshen ) Codonopsis has a central place in Chinese herbal medicine as a gentle tonic that increase energy levels and helps the body adapt to stress for both sexes.  Research has confirmed this use. Codonopsis is thought to be similar in action to ginseng, but it is milder and has a shorter-lasting effect.  It is given to those who find ginseng too strong a tonic and is used interchangeably with ginseng in Chinese herbal formulas.  In Chinese herbal medicine, codonopsis is considered to tone the qui, lungs, and spleen.  It improves vitality and helps to balance metabolic function.  It is a gentle tonic remedy that helps to revive the system as a whole.  Codonopsis is taken in particular for tired limbs, general fatigue, and for digestive problems such as appetite loss, vomiting, and diarrhea.  It is thought to nourish the yin of the stomach without making it too “wet,” and at the same time to tone the spleen without making it too “dry.”  It is beneficial in any chronic illness where “spleen qi deficiency” is a contributory factor.  Codonopsis is given as a tonic to people who are stressed and have “false-fire” symptoms, including tense neck muscles, headaches, irritability, and high blood pressure, and who find the tonic action of ginseng too strong.  Codonopsis is reputedly more successful in reducing levels of adrenaline, and therefore stress, than ginseng.  The herb is taken regularly by nursing mothers in China to increase milk production and as a tonic to “build strong blood.”  Codonopsis clears excessive mucus from the lungs and is useful for respiratory problems, including shortness of breath and asthma
Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that codonopsis increases hemoglobin and red blood cell levels, and lowers blood pressure.  Other research has confirmed the ability of codonopsis to help increase endurance to stress and to maintain alertness. Source: Crimson Sage

Coffee (Coffea arabica):

Coffee Berry (Rhamnus californica):

Cola (Cola acuminata)   Kola nut stimulates the central nervous system and the body as a whole.  It increases alertness and muscular strength, counters lethargy, and has been used extensively both in western African and Anglo-American herbal medicine as an antidepressant, particularly during recovery from chronic illness.  Like coffee, kola is used to treat headaches and migraine.  It is diuretic and astringent and may be taken for diarrhea and dysentery.  It will aid in states of depression and may in some people give rise to euphoric states.  Through the stimulation it will be a valuable part of the treatment for anorexia.  It can be viewed as specific in cases of depression associated with weakness and debility. 

(Coleus forskohlii): Coleus contains forskolin. That constituent was researched by an Indian/German company and shown to be a powerful medicine for heart failure, glaucoma, and bronchial asthma. Forskolin lowers high blood pressure, relaxes smooth muscle, increases the release of hormones from the thyroid gland, stimulates digestive secretion, and reduces pressure within the eye. Coleus has been prescribed to treat congestive heart failure and poor coronary blood flow. It also improves circulation of blood to the brain. (Take only under professional supervision.) Forskolin reduces preload and afterload of the heart due to its vasodilating action and augments myocardial contractility due to its positive inotropic action without affecting myocardial oxygen consumption. Forskolin relaxed contracted airways in-vitro and prevented methacholine and acetylcholine induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics and healthy subjects respectively.
Source: Crimson Sage   

Colombo (Cocculus palmatus):

Colorado Four-O'Clock (Mirabilis multiflora)

Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara): : Coltsfoot leaves have long been recommended for lung problems such as laryngitis, bronchitis and asthma and to control spastic coughing.  Both Ayurvedic and Chinese physicians have prescribed it for similar problems.  It is a soothing expectorant and the flavonoids it contains reduce inflammation, especially in the bronchials.  It is also applied as a poultice to  sores and ulcerations and as a cream for cold sores.   It can also be inhaled or smoked on its own as a remedy for asthma, bronchitis and various congestions of the lungs. It may also be taken as a strong tea mixture or as an infusion for the above conditions.  Soluble in both water and diluted alcohol.   
A German study showed the herb increases the activity of the microscopic hairs in the breathing tubes that move mucus out of the respiratory tract.  Another experiment shows that the herb suppresses a substance (platelet activating factor or PAF) in the body that is involved in triggering asthma attacks.
Source: Crimson Sage

Coltsfoot, Sweet (Petasites palmatus): Sweet Coltsfoot has been widely used as a medicine over the years. It was once the official sign of the French apothecaries. Some native groups chewed the roots or made them into a tea to treat chest ailments (tuberculosis and asthma), rheumatism, sore throats, and stomach ulcers. Coltsfoot leaves and flowers were steeped in hot water to make a tea for people suffering from diarrhea. The white roots of this plant are boiled to provide a liquid which cures the itch. The roots are demulcent and slightly tonic. It is used in bronchitis and pulmonary troubles. The pulverized root is smoked in Germany and Sweden to cure a cough.  The roots have been used in treating the first stages of grippe and consumption. The dried and grated roots have been applied as a dressing on boils, swellings and running sores. An infusion of the crushed roots has been used as a wash for sore eyes. A syrup for treating coughs and lung complaints has been made from the roots of this species combined with mullein (Verbascum sp.) and plum root (Prunus sp.).

Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris):

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale): : Comfrey leaves and especially the root contain allantoin, a cell proliferant that increases the healing of wounds.  It also stops bleeding, is soothing, and is certainly the most popular ingredient in herbal skin sales for wounds, inflammation, rashes, varicose veins, hemorrhoids and just about any skin problem.  Taken internally, comfrey repairs the digestive tract lining, helping to heal peptic and duodenal ulcers and colitis.  Studies show it inhibits prostaglandins, which cause inflammation of the stomach lining.  Comfrey has been used to treat a variety of respiratory diseases and is a specific when these involve coughing of blood.  In cases of bleeding of the lungs, stomach or bowels the leaves or root should be made into a strong decoction, or a strong infusion of the leaves and regular hourly or two hourly drinks taken until the bleeding ceases.  The root is stronger and more effective than the leaves.  In the case of bleeding piles the addition of distilled extract of Witch Hazel to the infusion or decoction will increase the effectiveness. To aid in the cure of mucous colitis mix equal parts of comfrey leaves, agrimony herb, cranesbill herb and marshmallow herb, use one ounce of the mixed herbs, make an infu9sion and take a wineglassful at least three times daily.
         The leaves moisten the lungs, help dissolve and expel mucus, soothe the throat, lowers fever, relieves cough and treat asthma.  It is applied externally as a poultice and taken internally to promote healing of injured tissues and bones.  The root is used to treat chronic lung diseases with dry cough and inflammation, sore throat, pulmonary catarrh, stomach ulcers, and wasting diseases.  It is excellent both internally and externally for promoting the healing of sores, bones, muscles and other tissues, and is as powerful as some of the best Oriental tonic herbs.  Concurrent internal and external application has the most favorable effect on the healing process.
Source: Crimson Sage

Combretum (Combretum sundaicum): The roasted leaves and stalks have been used in China for the treatment of the opium habit but its action is uncertain

Common Box (Buxus sempervirens):

Common Burdock (Arctium minus):

Common Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis):

Common Catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides):

Common Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris):

Common Skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata):

Common Mallow: (Malva sylvestris): : Though less useful than marsh mallow, common mallow is an effective demulcent.  The flowers and leaves are emollient and good for sensitive areas of the skin.  Mallow is beneficial in the treatment of painful swellings and is used as a digestive and diuretic herb, as well as in the making of an external lotion for acne.  The leaves have the reputation of easing the pain of a wasp sting if rubbed on the affected area.  A certain cure for a cold was believed to be bathing the feet in a decoction of the leaves, flowers and roots. Taken internally, the leaves reduce gut irritation, aids recovery from gastritis and stomach ulcers, laryngitis and pharyngitis, upper respiratory catarrh and bronchitis and have a laxative effect.  When common mallow is combined with eucalyptus, it makes a good remedy for coughs and other chest ailments.  As with marsh mallow, the root may be given to children to ease teething.  The fresh dried leaves are put into decoctions; the root may be dried, but it is best fresh, if chosen when there are leaves growing from it.  

Compass Plant (Silphium laciniatum):

Condurango  (Marsdenia condurango)    This bitter may be used in a whole range of digestive and stomach problems.  It will relax the nerves of the stomach, making it of use in the settling of indigestion where this is affected by nervous tension and anxiety.  Often used in South American folk medicine as a bitter and digestive tonic, it is a specific treatment for nervous indigestion and anorexia nervosa.  Its bitterness slowly increases the appetite, as well as the stomach’s ability to process increased quantities of food.  The herb is also thought to stimulate the liver and pancreas, and may be taken for liver disorders.  It also encourages menstruation.  The caustic white latex is applied to remove warts.  Condurangogenins in condurango may prove beneficial in countering tumors.  The whole plant, however, does not seem to significantly alter cancer development.   

Coneflower (Rudbeckia hirta):

Consumption Brake (Botrychium lunaria):

Contrayerva (Dorstenia contrayerva):

Contribo (Aristolochia grandiflora): It has a number of reported uses in Central America.  Contribo can often be seen soaking in a bottle of rum at saloons, since it is taken by the shot for everything from hangovers and flu to amoebas, flatulence, late menstrual periods, and irregular heartbeat.  The crushed leaves are sometimes applied as a plaster for skin diseases, as a poultice for snakebite, and as an emmenagogue and treatment for diarrhea.

Coolwort (Mitella diphylla):

Copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii):

Copal (Protium copal): Chickleros who stayed in the bush for months relied on fresh copal resin to treat painful cavities, a piece of resin was stuffed into the cavity and, in a few days, the tooth broke apart and was easily expelled. The bark is scraped, powdered, and applied to wounds, sores, and infections.  Cut a piece of bark 2.5 cm x 15 cm; boil in 3 cups of water for 10 minutes and drink 1 cup before meals for stomach complaints and intestinal parasites.  It is also used as a remedy for fright and dizziness.

Copalquin (Hintonia latiflora): For nausea and vomiting; with fever and great weakness; for water retention and kidney weakness that accompanies lingering illnesses.  It is sometimes used to treat diabetes but it probably inadvisable to use it for this purpose.    The bark is used as a febrifuge and anti-malarial remedy in many parts of Mexico; the bark is harvested from the Alamos region, made into capsules in Navojoa and sold commercially, and it is like-wise harvested in many other parts of Mexico. Known as “Amargo” because of the bitter flavor, the tea is drunk as a purgative for intestinal parasites, as an energy tonic, and to “restore the blood”, and reduce fevers. This tea is often used when the seasons change from hot to cool weather. The bark is made into a wash to lower fevers. The bark is also added to Suwí-ki as a fermentation catalyst. Bark is utilized to reduce fevers, malaria, gastro-intestinal problems, blood purifier. For bile, the bark is boiled and the tea is drunk for diabetes, water is boiled and a piece of bark is added.

Coppereleaf (Acalypha indica):

Coralbead (Erythrina herbacea):

Corn (Zea mays):

Corn Chamomile (Anthemis arvensis): Employed in fevers, colds, and to produce perspiration.  This species is considered to be one of the best febrifuge species indigenous to France. The flowers and leaves are used.

Corn Cockle (Agrostemma githago): The seed is diuretic, expectorant and vermifuge.  Minute amounts are used medicinally. It has a folk history of use in the external treatment of cancer, warts etc. The plant is not used in allopathic medicine, but it has been found efficacious in the treatment of dropsy and jaundice if used for long enough.

Corn Marigold (Chrysanthemum segetum)

Corn Mint (Mentha arvensis):

Corn Poppy (Papaver rhoeas)

Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus )  Cornflower is still used in French herbal medicine as a remedy for the eyes.  The strained infusion is used as an eyewash, and the petals applied as a poultice. But opinions differ as to its efficacy.  The petals are also taken as a bitter tonic and stimulant, improving digestion and possibly supporting the liver as well as improving resistance to infection.  A tea made from the petals is used in diseases of the urinary tract.    The seeds have been used as a mild laxative for children. A decoction of the leaves is used to treat rheumatic complaints.

Costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita (previous C. majus and Tanacetum balsamita):   Rarely used today, but was included in the British Pharmacopoeia until 1788 for its use treating dysentery and other digestive problems.  Early writers suggested the leaves to relieve headaches and gout pain, to increase menstruation, and as a diuretic.  It was also used for conditions of “excessive coldness.”  Costmary is slightly astringent and antiseptic on wounds and burns and was also used with other herbs in ointments for dry, itch skin and skin parasites.  Infuse the leaf as a tonic tea for colds, catarrh, upset stomachs and cramps, and to ease childbirth.  Add to a salve for burns and stings.  It was at one time employed medicinally in this country, having somewhat astringent and antiseptic properties, and had a place in our Pharmacopceia until 1788, chiefly as an aperient, its use in dysentery being especially indicated.  An ointment made by boiling the herb in olive oil with Adder's Tongue and thickening the strained liquid with wax and resin and turpentine was considered to be very valuable for application to sores and ulcers.

Costus (Saussurea lappa (S. costus): Kuth is used in the Ayurvedic and Unani Tibb traditions in India for its tonic, stimulant, and antiseptic properties.  The root is commonly taken, with other herbs, for respiratory system problems such as bronchitis, asthma, and coughs.  It is also used to treat cholera.

Cota (Thelesperma megapotamicum):

Coto (Nectandra coto). It may be given in ten drop doses of the fluid extract, repeated according to the urgency of the case.  Formerly used for catarrh, diarrhea and dysentery, as a decoction. It has a specific effect on the alimentary canal but is not a suitable remedy where inflammation exists or is threatened, but rather should be employed in relaxed states, and where some poisonous element has been taken into the system in the food or drinking water. It is antiseptic or promotes asepsis. . It is one of the most efficient remedies in the exhaustive sweats of consumptive patients

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum):

Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum):

Cotton Grass (Eriophorum angustifolium):

Cotton Lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus):

Cottonwood, Valley (Populus wislizeni): The bark of older trees is boiled and drunk warm to depress fevers, to treat arthritis during acute episodes, and to cure diarrhea.  Ashes of the burned bark are mixed with corn meal and enough hot water to form a poultice that is applied to boils and abcesses.  The spring leaf buds are soaked for a week in 2 or 3 times their volume of corn or olive oil to make an oil to treat cracked skin and burns from heat, friction, and wind.  A tea brewed from the dried leaves is a diuretic and also lessens the pain of difficult urination.

Couchgrass (Agropyron repens (Elymus repens) )   A gentle, effective diuretic and demulcent, couchgrass is used for urinary infections, including cystitis, nephritis and urethritis.  It also is useful for urinary calculi, gall stones and jaundice, as well as gout and rheumatic complaints. It is a soothing herb that improves excretion from kidneys and bowels, lowers blood cholesterol levels and even clears infection.  It both protects the urinary tubules against infection and irritants and increases the volume of urine, thereby diluting it.  It can be taken, usually with other herbs, to help treat kidney stones, reducing the irritation and laceration they cause.  Couch grass is also thought to dissolve kidney stones as far as possible, and in any case will help to prevent their further enlargement.   In German herbal medicine, heated couch grass seeds are used in a hot and moist pack that is applied to the abdomen to sooth peptic ulcers.  Juice from the roots of couch grass has been used to treat jaundice and other liver complaints.  The herb is used in various tea mixtures to stimulate the metabolism and harmonize its processes. Extracts of couch grass have exhibited antibiotic effects on a variety of bacteria and molds.

Country Mallow (Sida cordifolia
): Roots, leaves, seeds and stems all used with each part having a different therapeutic value and must be prepared in its own way for the maximum benefits. Sida cordifolia has been used for over 2,000 years to treat bronchial asthma cold & flu, chills, lack of perspiration, headache, nasal congestion, aching joints and bones, cough & wheezing, and edema. In Western terms, Sida cordifolia is considered to have diaphoretic, diuretic, central nervous system stimulating and anti-asthmatic activity. The stem of this plant contains a number of active compounds, including small amounts of an essential oil, and most important, 1-2% alkaloids composed mainly of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, with ephedrine ranging from 30-90%, depending on the source.   A decoction of the root with ginger is given by Ayurvedic physicians in intermittent fever. It is also administered in fever accompanied by rigour. The powdered root bark is administered with milk and sugar as treatment for urinary urgency and leucorrhoea. The seeds are used to treat urinary infections. They are also believed to be aphrodisiac. The rejuvenating actions of this herb extend to the nervous, circulatory, urinary and reproductive systems. It is helpful in all types of nervous system disorders including: paralysis, insanity, hemiplegia, stiff neck, tinnitis, headache, sciatica, inflammation of nerves, and neuralgia. Bala has the chemical characteristics of Ephedrine and is therefore a cardiac stimulant and is useful in certain types of heart disease.  Bala has a diuretic effect and is useful in urinary problems including cystitis. Being cooling and astringent, it is used for inflammations and bleeding disorders. It may be used for bleeding hemorrhoids, hematuria, chronic dysentery, chronic fevers, and healing of wounds. Bala is very effective used topically as a medicated oil.   Source: Crimson Sage

Cow Parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris): The root is soaked for several days in rice washings and then cooked with other foods as a tonic for general weakness.

Cowfoot Vine (Bauhinia herrerae): The stem is used as an astringent to staunch diarrhea and bleeding, to reduce hemorrhage, and to wash wounds.  Boil a handful of chopped vine in 3 cups of water for 10 minutes; allow to cool and drink ½ cup 6 times daily for headaches, internal wounds, and bleeding, or 2 cups in ½ hour for hemorrhage.  Use this same decoction to wash bleeding or infected wounds.  For headaches, mash a handful of leaves in 1 quart of water, place in sun for 1 hour and wash head with this water.  The leaves are a component of some of the traditional bath mixtures used to treat many ailments.
            This is an old remedy for birth control among Maya women, now apparently mostly forgotten.  Prepared from a handful of vine that has been boiled in 3 cups of water for 10 minutes, a cup is consumed before each meal all during the menstrual cycle.  It is said that this dose is effective for up to 6 months.  Drinking this decoction during 9 menstrual cycles is said to produce irreversible infertility in women.

Cowherd (Vaccaria hispanica):  The medicinal seeds are round, reddish brown, and look like mustard seeds.  They are bitter and contain saponin.    A decoction of the seed is used to treat skin problems, breast tumors,  menstrual problems, deficiency of lactation and sluggish labor. The sap of the plant is said to be febrifuge and tonic. It is used in the treatment of long-continued fevers of a low type as well as coughs. The plant is used externally to cure itch. This herb is used for its astringent properties in a patent formula called Prostate Gland Pills, for swelling and inflammation of the prostate.  The formula is quite effective, but during treatment the herb causes some men to temporarily lose the capacity to sustain erection, a side effect that disappears when the herb is withdrawn.  In fact, this effect helps support the therapy, because men are supposed to refrain from sexual intercourse anyway during treatment for prostate problems.   

Cow Parsnip (Heracleum maximum (H lanatum)   Used mainly in a poultice for boils and other skin problems.  The dried powdered roots have been used on the gums to relieve discomfort from loose teeth, and all over the body to treat fever.  Mixed with available fats or oils, the dried powdered roots have been rubbed on affected parts to treat rheumatic pains and heart palpitations.  Sometimes the roots have been boiled and the liquid rubbed on for these treatments.  The root has been taken internally for colic, gas, diarrhea, indigestion, and for asthma.
Cow parsnip is a remedy for the stomach and nervous system.  The root, which loses most of its acridity upon drying and should not be used fresh is made into a tea (a teaspoon to a cup) and drunk for nausea that is of a persistent nature but does not progress to vomiting, as well as for acid indigestion or heartburn. In New Mexico, it is often used for the gas and indigestion that accompanies a hiatus hernia, particularly in older women.  The seeds are equally effective and if tinctured (fresh or dry), even a few drops on the tongue can settle the most unsettled stomach.  Although not as antiseptic as oil of cloves, the seed tincture is a good temporary analgesic when applied to a sore tooth and is far less irritating the gums.  The root or seeds act as an antispasmodic to the intestinal tract and will help quiet tenesmus or cramping of the large intestine and the lower tract and will help quiet tenesmus or cramping of the large intestine and the lower section of the small intestine.  It can sooth a spastic colon caused by mucous membrane inflammations but is less effective when it is of a distinctly nervous origin.  It may help bronchial spasms and will both increase menstrual flow and relax uterine cramps.   In New Mexico a strong tea is made from the dry or wilted roots and poured into the bath water of a recently paralyzed person.  This is repeated once a day until some nerve function has returned or the therapy has brought to apparent relief.  Also, in northern New Mexico, a poultice or strong tea is applied to the face for tic douloureux particularly where there is some motor paralysis, and for aigre: a temporary paralysis of the face, neck, or arms that is attributed to bad night air or drafts.  The powdered root or seeds can be used as a poultice for sore muscles and joints, having a mild rubifacient effect.


Cowslip (Primula veris (syn Primula officinalis))  Cowslip is an underused but valuable plant.  The root is strongly expectorant, stimulating a more liquid mucus and thus easing the clearance of phlegm.  It is given for chronic coughs, especially those associated with chronic bronchitis and mucous congestion.  The root is also thought to be mildly diuretic and antirheumatic, and to slow blood clotting.  The leaves have similar properties to the root but are weaker in action.  The flowers are believed to be sedative, and are recommended for overactivity and sleeplessness, particularly in children.  Cowslip flowers’ antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory properties make them potentially useful in the treatment of asthma and other allergic conditions.  The flowers are also used in salves for sunburn and dry skin. 
               The essential oils can soothe the mind and nerves. A tea from Cowslip flowers often alleviates a tension headache, defeats insomnia and prevents nightmares.  The high content of saponins present in the root and calyx gives cowslip demulcent and expectorant qualities.  This makes it a good cough remedy especially when phlegm is present.  The flowers with the calyx removed are used to treat migraines and kidney and bladder conditions.  With the calyx, they are used as a demulcent and expectorant tea for cough and bronchitis. Cowslip taken as a tea can influence the metabolism and flush out uric acid accumulations.  For rheumatic pains, nerve pain, and weak muscles cowslip oil can be rubbed on the affected areas.  The finely chopped root can be put through a garlic press and the juice strained out.  It promotes vigorous sneezing, stimulating the mucous membranes and beneficial for chronic rhinitis and nasal stuffiness.   Cowslip leaves are used in wound poultices. 

Coyote Brush (Baccharis pilularis): An infusion of the plant has been used as a general remedy or panacea. Coast Miwok Indians used the heated leaves to reduce swelling

Crab Claw Herb (Peperomia pellucida): In Suriname's traditional medicine, a solution of the fresh juice of stem and leaves is used against eye inflammation.  It is also applied against coughing, fever, common cold, headache, sore throat, diarrhea, against kidney - and prostate problems and against high blood pressure.  In Northeastern Brazil the plant is used in the treatment of abscesses, furuncles, and conjunctivitis.
           Infusion and decoction or salad for kidney troubles, gout and rheumatic pains; pounded plant warm poultice for boils and abscesses.  Externally, it is used as a facial rinse for complexion problems. Leaf juice is used for colic and abdominal pains.  Avoid using with other pain relievers and diuretics. Used as a poultice for sore throats.  Suppresses peristalsis due to the volatile oil present

Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis): A decoction of the plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea. A folk remedy for cataracts and debility, it is also said to be emetic.

Cramp Bark (Viburnum opulus): Crampbark is effective at relieving any over-tense muscle, whether smooth muscle in the intestines, airways, or uterus, or striated muscle in the limbs or back. It may be taken internally or applied topically to relieve muscle tension.  The herb also treats symptoms arising from excess muscle tension, including breathing difficulties in asthma, and menstrual pain caused by excessive contraction of the uterus..  For night cramps and back pain, lobelia is often mixed with crampbark.  The herb also relieves constipation, colic, and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as the physical symptoms of nervous tension.  Useful as a protection against threatened miscarriage.  Its astringent action gives it a role in the treatment of excessive blood loss in periods and especially bleeding associated with the menopause.               In some cases of arthritis, where joint weakness and pain have caused muscles to contract until they are almost rigid, crampbark can bring remarkable relief.  As the muscles relax, blood flow to the area improves, waste products such as lactic acid are removed and normal function can return.  Crampbark is commonly used in treatments for high blood pressure and other circulatory conditions.  
It is a specific remedy for pains in the thighs and back and a bearing-down, expulsive pain in the uterus, whether during pregnancy and childbirth or during menstruation.
Crampbark combines well with bearberry for bladder infections with painful cramping and frequent urination with little passed.              
For the relief of cramp it may be combined with Prickly Ash and Wild Yam.  For uterine and ovarian pains or threatened miscarriage it may be used with Black Haw and Valerian.  For bladder infections with painful cramping combine with bearberry.

Cranesbill, American (Geranium maculatum) : An astringent and clotting agent, American cranesbill is used today much as in earlier times.  The herb is often prescribed for irritable bowel syndrome and hemorrhoids, and it is used to staunch wounds.  It may also be used to treat heavy menstrual bleeding and excessive vaginal discharge.  As a douche it can be used in leucorrhea.  Its powerful astringent action is used in secondary dysentery, diarrhea, and infantile cholera (Boil with milk to which a little cinnamon has been added and the milk cooked down to half its liquid volume.).  Troublesome bleeding from the nose, wounds or small vessels, and from the extraction of teeth may be checked effectively by applying the powder to the bleeding orifice and, if possible, covering with a compress of cotton.  For Diabetes and Brights disease a decoction taken internally has proven effective of Unicorn root and Cranesbill.   One of the safest and most effective astringent herbs for gastrointestinal problems.

Creeping Fig (
Ficus pumila): The leaves are used for carbuncle, dysentery, hematuria, piles; dried leaves and stems for boils, rheumatism, sore throat.  Stem: latex used for skin disease; stem or fruit peel for backache, cancer, hernia, piles, swellings, and tuberculosis of the testicles.  Decoction of the fruit for hernia.  Rot is used for bladder inflammation and dysuria.  The plant is regarded as aphrodisiac, or at least strengthening to the male power, used for spermatorrhea, as a lactagogue; eating the plant is said to curb heart pain, anticancer. 

Crepe Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica): The taste is slightly bitter and biting.  The plant promotes diuresis, resolves clots and bruises. It also is an antidote for poisoning.  A decoction of the flowers is used in the treatment of colds. . As a diuretic, boil 2 leaves in 3 cups water for 10 minutes and take in sips all day—not to exceed 6 cups weekly.  Boil a slice of bark 7.5 cm x 2.5 cm in 2 quarts of water for 10 minutes and use to bathe wounds and infections.

Crinkleroot (Dentaria diphylla) The root of this little plant is a diffusive and somewhat pungent stimulant, when dried; and also possesses a mild tonic power. Its principal influence is expended upon the nervous peripheries, and moderately upon the capillaries. It is of the antispasmodic class of nervines; and is useful in hysterical nervousness and spasms of the more acute form, painful and tardy menstruation, flatulent colic, and similar maladies requiring a diffusive stimulant. It warms the surface, and secures gentle perspiration. It is agreeable in taste, but its influence is rather transient. It has been claimed to have used it for many years with unvarying success in epilepsy. The best method of giving it is a tincture prepared by macerating four ounces of the roots in a quart of diluted alcohol, straining and pressing; of which two to three fluid drachms may be given every four or two hours.     The peppery root is used as a folk remedy in the treatment of toothache. It has also been chewed in the treatment of colds, an infusion drunk to treat gas and other stomach problems. A tea made from the root is gargled in the treatment of sore throat, hoarseness etc. An infusion of the plant has been used to treat fevers in children. Combined with Acorus calamus root, it has been used in the treatment of heart diseases. Toothwort tea can also be used to soothe and calm nerves and is a mild natural relaxant. The fresh juice can aid in digestion. The crushed root of Toothwort can be used externally as a plaster for aches, pains, and rheumatism.

Crotalaria (Crotalaria retusa): Occasionally used in folk medicine in tropical regions to treat stomach disorders and colic. The leaves and flowers are used in Grenada to make a cold-cure tea, where healers are said to favor parts of the plant that caterpillars are attracted.  It is used in homeopathic medicine.

Croton, Texas (Croton texensis): Doveweed contains croton oil, a cathartic, and was used as such at Isleta, Acoma, Laguna, and Zuni. Preparations of the plant have been used for rheumatism, paralysis, earache (seeds placed in ear), and headache (inhalation of smoke from burning plant).  The powdered leaves are mixed with honey, beeswax, or Vaseline and applied to swollen joints.  The leaves, steeped in vinegar or wine, are applied to the temples for headaches.  The whole plant is placed under mattresses to repel bedbugs and is burned like incense as a fumigant.  The herb is still used in small doses as a laxative but it contains potentially cancer-causing irritants and internal use is not recommended. 

Crowfoot, Cursed (Ranunculus sceleratus): When bruised and applied to the skin it raises a blister and creates a sore that is not easy to heal. If chewed it inflames the tongue and produces violent effects. The herb should be used fresh since it loses its effects when dried. The leaves and the root are used externally as an antirheumatic. The seed is tonic and is used in the treatment of colds, general debility, rheumatism and spermatorrhea.

Crown Imperial Lily (Fritillaria imperialis): Occasionally been used as a cough remedy (expectorant) and to increase the milk flow in feeding mothers.

Crucifixion Thorn (Castela emoryi): The cold brewed tea is used to treat amoebic and giardic diarrhea, and any stomach or intestinal flu, particularly in the flat-tasting, early days of recuperation.  Soak the stem pieces in water to make it safer to drink. The tea makes a good skin wash for scratches and abrasions.

Cuban Oregano (Plectranthus amboinicus): Used traditionally within Ayurvedic and Unani Tibb herbal medicine to help reduce inflammation and is prescribed for bronchitis and asthma. It is reputed to very effective as a treatment for coughs. An old gardener told me that it is often referred to as "pokok asthma".  The fresh leaves are pounded and the extracted juice mixed with water.  An alternative method recommended is to boil a sprig in water with honey thrown in for added measure.

Cubeb (Piper cubeba): Cubeb and its oil are carminative, diuretic, stimulant and antiseptic and were employed as genito-urinary antiseptics and especially for clearing up gonorrhoea.  Extract of cubeb is also expectorant, being helpful in pulmonary infections such as bronchitis.  The powder from dried and crushed cubebs is added to cigarettes for the relief of asthma.  Oil of cubeb is a constituent of some throat lozenges and is useful for urinary ailments and acts as an antiseptic against gonorrhea. Used for indigestion, catarrh, bronchitis, coughs, and lung problems. Cigarettes made of cubeb are said to help with hay fever, asthma, and pharyngitis. Composite herbal drugs containing P.cubeba as one of the ingredients are clinically effective in the treatment of cough. Alcoholic extract of the  drug shows antibacterial activity against Micrococcus pyrogens var. aureus. Oil of cubeb is effective against influenza virus and Bacillus typhosus.

Cuckoo Pint (Arum italicum): Theophrastus wrote about the Cuckoo Pint.  It was used in ancient medicine, mixed with honey, to cure coughs. Currently used in homeopathy 

Cucumber, Chinese (Trichosanthes kirilowii) Internally used for diabetes, dry coughs, abscesses, childbirth (second stage of labor), and abortion (tubers); bronchial infections with thick phlegm, chest pain and tightness; dry constipation, and lung and breast tumors (fruits).   Fruits are traditionally prepared as a winter soup to ward off colds and influenza.
            Trichosanthin was isolated from the root tuber of a Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz and was identified as the active component of Tian Hua Fen, a Chinese medicine described as early as the 16th century as a treatment for various kinds of ulcer. Since the discovery of its specific injurious effects on human placental trophoblasts in the 1970's, trichosanthin has been used clinically in China to induce abortion and to treat diseases of trophoblastic origin such as hydatiform mole, invasive mole and choriocarcinoma. Soon after the laboratory finding in 1989 by McGrath et al. that trichosanthin appeared to inhibit the HIV-1 replication in both acutely infected T-lymphoblastoid cells and in chronically infected macrophages, and selectively killed HIV-infected cells while leaving uninfected cells unharmed, clinical trials of trichosanthin as a potential treatment for HIV were carried out in USA. Trichosanthin attacks the life cycle of the virus at an entirely different point from AZT and related drugs, and in other words, it has a unique mechanism of action complementary to other drugs. Present clinical reports showed that trichosanthin has some curing effects on AIDS patients and suggested it to be a possible treatment that may fill the gap in the treatment of HIV disease.  Source: Crimson Sage

Cucumber Root (Medeola virginiana): Leaf and berry tea administered to babies with convulsions. Root tea once used as a diuretic for dropsy.

Cucumber Tree (Magnolia acuminate): A mild diaphoretic, tonic, and aromatic stimulant. It is used in rheumatism and is contra-indicated in inflammatory symptoms. In the Alleghany districts the cones are steeped in spirits to make a tonic tincture. A warm infusion is laxative and sudorific, a cold one being antiperiodic and mildly tonic. It has historically been used as a substitute for quinine in the treatment of malaria. An infusion has been used in the treatment of stomach ache and cramps. The bark has been chewed by people trying to break the tobacco habit. A hot infusion of the bark has been snuffed to treat sinus problems and has also been held in the mouth to treat toothaches. The bark is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It does not store well so stocks should be renewed annually. A tea made from the fruit is a tonic, used in the treatment of general debility and was formerly esteemed in the treatment of stomach ailments. In Louisiana, the bark of the root and the fruit was used in herbal treatments.  The powdered root bark dosage was about a teaspoonful.  The tincture was most often used.  It was made by placing the fruit in weak alcohol for a given time.  The rural herbal users have used the fruit of the cucumber tree to treat dyspepsia and general debility for many years.  Herbalists used the bark and fruit prepared in the required form to give relief from the pains of rheumatism.  Midwives gave a tonic of the cucumber tree for treatment in obstinate cases of suppressed menstruation.

Culantro (Eryngium foetidum (E. antihystericum) In Carib medicine as a cure-all, and, specifically for epilepsy, high blood pressure, and fevers, fits, and chills in children.  In Suriname's traditional medicine fitweed (culantro) is used against fevers and flu.  It is used as a tea for diarrhea, flu, fevers, vomiting, diabetes and constipation. In India the root is used to alleviate stomache.

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum): : Cumin seed is used for diarrhea and indigestion.  Specific for headaches caused by ingestion. Hot cumin water is excellent for colds and fevers and is made by boiling a teaspoon of roasted seeds in 3 cups of water.  Honey can be added to soothe a sore throat.  It is supposed to increase lactation and reduce nausea in pregnancy.  Used in a poultice, it relieves swelling of the breast or the testicles.  Smoked in a pipe with ghee, it is taken to relieve the hiccups.  Stimulates the appetite.  Still used in veterinary practice.  Cumin mixed with flour and water is good feed for poultry and it is said if you give tame pigeons cumin it makes them fond of their home and less likely to stray.  Basalt mixed with cumin seeds was a common country remedy for pigeons' scabby backs and breasts.   

Cupid's Shaving Brush (Emilia sonchifolia): A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of dysentery. The juice of the leaves is used in treating eye inflammations, night blindness and sore ears.  It is used in the treatment of infantile tympanites and bowel complaints. The root is used in the treatment of diarrhea.

Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii): Said to be tonic and stomachic.  In India, the young leaves are taken for dysentery and diarrhea.   The leaves and the stem are used as a tonic, stimulant and carminative.   An infusion of the toasted leaves is anti-emetic.  A paste of the bark and roots is applied to bruises and poisonous bites.  The seeds are used to make a medicinal oil called ‘zimbolee oil.’  Fresh juice of the leaves mixed with lemon juice and sugar is prescribed for digestive disorders, and eating 10 curry leaves every morning for 3 months is thought to cure hereditary diabetes.  A few drops of the juice are believed to keep eyes bright.  A liberal intake of curry leaves impedes premature greying of the hair.  The leaves, boiled in coconut oil, are massaged into the scalp to promote hair growth and retain color.  The leaves may also be used as a poultice to help heal burns and wounds.  Juice from the berries may be mixed with lime juice and applied to soothe insect bites and stings.  

Cycas (Cycas media): Seeds used in folk medicine.  They have been used mainly topically to treat sores and skin diseases. In India the seeds are used as a remedy for insomnia. 

Cynanchum (Cynanchum glaucescens): The fragrant root is used in Chinese medicine.  The roots and stems are used to treat coughs, pneumonia, uneasy breathing, and lung diseases.  They are also used in the treatment of asthma with profuse sputum, coughs etc.

Cypress, White (Chamaecyparis thyoides): A decoction of the leaves has been used as a herbal steam for treating headaches and backaches. A poultice made from the crushed leaves and bark has been applied to the head to treat headaches.




The Herb Growing & Marketing Network
Maureen Rogers, Director
PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575-0245
717-393-3295; FAX: 717-393-9261